83 terms

AP Biology Chapter 3

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isomers
compounds- same molecular formula, different structural formulas
structural isomers
differ in arrangement of atoms and often in location of double bonds
geometric isomers
same covalent bonds, differ in arrangement around double bond
enantiomers
left and right handed (mirror images) of each other
macromolecule
large molecule made by joining smaller molecules together
polymer
chainlike molecule formed by linking together man similar small molecule (monomers)
dehydration synthesis
reaction joining monomers to form polymers or other macromolecules
hydrolysis
breaking of bonds between monomers through the addition of water
Carbohydrates
-sugars and their polymers
-sugars serve as fuel and carbon sources
-have general formula of (CH2O)n monosaccharides
glucose
CARBOHYDRATES
-C6H12O6
-broken down to yield energy in cellular respiration
disaccharide
CARBOHYDRATES
-two monosaccharides bonded together by a glycosidic linkage (a covalent bond formed a dehydration reaction between two monosaccharides
glucose+fructose=
CARBOHYDRATES
sucrose (table sugar)
glucose+glucose=
CARBOHYDRATES
maltose
polysaccharides
CARBOHYDRATES
-polymers of sugars
-have storage and structural roles
starch
CARBOHYDRATES
-energy storage molecule
-polymer made of glucose molecules joined b 1-4 linkages (helical shape)
-polymer of a-glucose
glycogen
-storage molecule in animals
-highly branched polymer of glucose
-polymer of a-glucose
cellulose
CARBOHYDRATES
-major structural component of plant cells (most abundant organic compound on earth) β linkages of cellulose cannot be broken down by the enzymes that digest starch-> very few organisms (some bacteria, microorganisms and fungi) are able to digest cellulose
chitin
CARBOHYDRATES
-polysaccharides that from glucose monomers with nitrogen-containing group
-found in exoskeleton of arthropods and cell walls of many fungi
-polymer of b-glucose
lipids
-fats, phospholipids, steroids
-do not form polymers
fats (Triglycerides)
LIPIDS
composed of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
fatty acid
LIPIDS
long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at end
glycerol
LIPIDS
3-carbon alcohol
ester linkages
LIPIDS
bond between hydroxyl and carboxyl group (links fatty acid to glycerol
unsaturated fatty acids
LIPIDS
-has c=c bond
-kinked/liquid
-fats of plants and fishes
-more unsaturated, the better
-2+ covalent bonds
saturated fatty acids
LIPIDS
- no c=c bonds
-solid
-animal fats
-cardio diseases
-single covalent bond
phospholipids
LIPIDS
-glycerol linked to two acids and a negatively charged phosphate group
-phosphate is hydrophilic, water soluble
-fatty acid is hydrophobic
- in cell membrane, head face out, tail face in
Proteins
-consists of one or more polypeptide chains folded into 3-D, shapes determines functions
polypeptide
PROTEINS
polymer of amino acids
R group
PROTEINS
-variable side chain that gives each amino acid its unique physical and chemical properties
-hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds
peptide bond
PROTEINS
links amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another formed b dehydration synthesis rxn
Four Levels of Protein Structure
PROTEINS
-biologists use x-ray crystallography and computer modeling to establish the 3D shapes of protein
Primary Structure: sequence of amino acids
Secondary structure: coiling or folding of amino acid chain (polypeptide), stabilized by hydrogen bonds between oxygen of one amino acid and hydrogen of another, can be coiled (a helix) or pleated (B pleated helix)
Tertiary structure: interactions between R groups produce unique shape for each protein, maintained b disulfide bonds
Quaternary structure: proteins are composed of two or more polypeptide chains in precise arrangement.
denaturation
PROTEINS
-interactions that give proteins their shape can be disrupted by changes in pH, slat concentration, or temperature
-causes proteins to lose their shape and function
disulfide bridges
PROTEINS
covalent bonds between sulfhydryl side groups of cysteine monomers
nucleic acids
macromolecules that carry and transmit the genetic code
DNA
NUCLEIC ACIDS
-deoxyribonucleic acid: the genetic material that is inherited from one generation to the next, deoxyribose sugar
RNA
NUCLEIC ACIDS
-ribonucleic acid, transcribes genetic information from the DA and directs the synthesis of proteins, ribose sugar
nucleotide
NUCLEIC ACIDS
-building blocks of nucleic acids- consists of a 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen base
-pyrimidine: nitrogenous bases consisting of single ring, cytosine (C) both DNA RNA, thymine (T) DNA and uracil (U) RNA
-purine: nitrogenous base consisting of two rings, adenine (A) and guanine (G)
monomers or components
sugars: monosaccharides
lipids: fatty acids
proteins: amino acids
nucleic acids: nucleotides
polymer or large molecule
sugars: polysaccharides
lipids: triacylglycerols
proteins: polypeptides
nucleic acids: polynucleotides
type of linkage
sugar: glycosidic linkages
lipids: ester linkages
proteins: peptide bonds
nucleic acids: phosphodiester linkages
Which type of molecule includes an example with a long-chain carbon backbone?
lipid
What is the dominant element attached to the carbon backbone?
hydrogen
Which molecule have a central carbon atom with 4 different components around it?
amino acids
Which molecule have a sugar, nitrogenous base and phosphate group?
nucleic acid
What three structural groups shown do all amino acids have in common?
amine, carboxyl and R group with hydrogen
Functions of 4 biological macromolecules
carbohydrates: energy storage, receptors, structure of plant cell wall, cellulose, glucose, deoxyribose, methionine
proteins: enzymes, structure, receptors, transport
lipids: membrane structure, energy storage, insulation, enzymes, chemical signaling(hormones)
nucleic acids: information storage and transfer
Chemical properties of hydrocarbons
-composed of only carbon and hydrogen,
-contains a large amount of stored energy,
-may have linear, branched or ring structures, insoluble in water
the number of covalent bonds formed by an atom of carbon is determined by
the number of electrons in its outermost electron shell
Proteins are able to perform man diverse biological functions because
the are polymers formed from chemically diverse subunits which can fold into many different shapes
The sugar subunits in the DNA backbone are joined by what type of bonds?
phosphodiester bonds
salt and vinegar preserve our food by
high heat, low pH, and high salt concentrations
DNA is a good for storage of energy because...
Ladder structure holds same info, so if some get damaged, it can be recovered
Advantage of fat
-dense, doesn't take up a lot of room
-reserved for future use
-doesn't weight as much
Carboxylic acid group
amine group
phosphate group
sugar group
nitrogen base
starch in a chloroplast
starch
monosaccharide
nucleotide
intermediate filament
polypeptide
amino acid
adipose cell with fat droplets
triglyceride
fatty acid
dehydration reaction
hydrolysis reaction
glucose
sucrose
maltose
phosphodiester bonds
dipeptide
how do one make a polypeptide?
with two amino acid group
glucose+fructose=
lactose (sugar in milk)
fatty acid
-hydrocarbons with carbonyl group at the end of the chain
monounsaturated fatty acid fat
-one double covalent bond
phospholipids
steroids
backbone of four linked carbon rings
steroids
nitrogen bases
adenine-thymine
cytosine-guanine