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The Labor Movement
Key people, events, laws and unions from the 1880s
Terms in this set (33)
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Leader of the National Labor Union.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Terence V. Powderly
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.
American Federation of Labor
Founded in 1886; a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
1894 railway workers strike for higher wages against the Pullman Company, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction (a court order to stop something) to prevent the strike.
1892; It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
On May 4, 1886 in Haymarket Square, Chicago police advanced on a meeting called to protest alleged brutalities by authorities. A dynamite bomb was thrown and killed dozens of people. The Knights of Labor were blamed for incident at Haymarket Square and as a result, it lost public support.
Industrial Workers of the World
Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
In re Debs
Supreme Court approved use of court injunctions against strikes which gave employers a very powerful weapon to break unions; Debs later turned to the American Socialist Party in 1900
Pinkerton Detective Agency
Private security force that specialized in anti-union activities; businesses' tool to break apart strikes
Progress and Poverty
Written by Henry George, critical of entreprenuers, after studying poverty in America, determined that rich didn't pay fair share of taxes and proposed "Single Tax" on incremental value of land
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.
Triangle Factory Fire
was one of the largest industrial disasters in the history of the city of New York, causing the death of 146 garment workers, most of them women
Socialist Party of America
This political party formed in 1901 with a strong representation from immigrants and provided a political outlet for worker grievances, but fared poorly beyond a few local elections in industrial areas.
By Edward Bellamy's utopian novel, Sold 1 million copies. It told of a young Bostonian who fell asleep and woke up in the year 2000 to find a perfect social order.
The Molly Maguires
secretive Irish union of coal miners in Pennsylvania that were willing to use violence against mine owners for their causes
John P. Altgeld
He was the progressive Democratic governor of Illinois who in 1893 pardoned those convicted in the Haymarket affair and in 1894 refused to break up the Pullman Strike
the term for a court order that requires a party or person to cease doing something as in a union striking
an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union
William "Big Bill" Haywood
a founding member of the IWW and the Socialist Party who was involved in several important labor battles, including the Colorado Labor Wars and the Lawrence textile strike and was jailed in 1917 under the Espionage Ac
was the American author, political activist, and lecturer who was the first deafblind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree and was a member of the Socialist Party of America and IWW
Lawrence Textile Strike
a strike of immigrant workers in Massachusetts in 1912 led by the Industrial Workers of the World sometimes called the "Bread and Roses" strike
Department of Labor
government agency was created in 1913 under President Taft to help mediate disputes between workers and owners and regulate work place conditions
Steel Strike of 1919
post-WWI strike, the greatest in American history, led by the AFL that eventually failed under the pressure of the Red Scare
Congress of Industrial Organizations
a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
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