46 terms

Chapter 13, Urban Patterns

AP Human Geography, Rubenstein & Fellman
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annexation
legally adding land area to a city in the United States
census
a complete enumeration of a population
census tract
an area delineated by the US Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
density gradient
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
edge cities
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area; there are few residential areas and it is modern (less than 30 years old)
filtering
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
galactic city
mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways
gentrification
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
megalopolis
An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
MSA
Metropolitan Statistical Area--In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city - metropolitan statistical area.
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
public housing
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
renovated housing
the alternative to demolishing deteriorated inner-city houses; fixing them up. This is an effective method of gentrification
scattered site
Relating to or being publicly funded low-income housing units scattered throughout middle-income residential areas.
informal settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures. (Also known as squatter settlement)
sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
zone in transition
name given to the second ring of the concentric zone model, which surrounds the CBD, in the concentric zone model. This place typically contains industry and poor-quality housing
Borchert's Epochs
5 distinct periods in American Urbanization: Sail Wagon, Iron Horse, Steel Rail, Auto-Air-Amenity, High-Tech
uptowns
Historic activity center built over an older city or town (a type of edge city)
boomburg
Ingredients: large population, considerable employment, a substantial amount of retail and entertainment activity. A creature of the automobile. Absence of a downtown, have a lot of office space (a type of edge city)
new urbanism
An urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs (Daybreak)
disamenity
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords--disadvantage or drawback to a location
greenfield
denoting previously undeveloped sites for commercial development or exploitation
carbon capture and storage
the process of capturing waste C02, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally underground
central business district (CBD)
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
central city (city)
an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit known as a municipality
combined statistical area (CSA)
in the US, two or more contiguous core based statistical areas tied together by commuting patterns
core-based statistical area (CBSA)
in the US, any MSA or µSA
primary census area (PSA)
in the United States, any CSA, any MSA not included in a CSA, or any µSA not included in a CSA
rush hour
the times at the beginning and end of the working day when many people are traveling to or from work
suburb
a residential district located on the outskirts of a central city
sustainable development
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
urban area
a central city and its surrounding built-up suburbs
urban cluster
In the United States, an urban area with between 2,500 and 50,000 inhabitants.
urbanized area
in the United States, an urban area with at least 50,000 inhabitants
zoning ordinance
a law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
social area analysis
statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar life style live within an urban area