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PSY 260 Quiz #1
Terms in this set (67)
the idea that we have a physical body and a separate, not physical mind; parallelism and interactionism
mind and body operate parallel of each other, they are independent
Rene Descartes said the mind does interact with the mind and body
the mind and the brain are the same; materialism, identity position, emergent property position, mentalism
mind is brain activity
mind and brain are same but described differently
Emergent Property Position
mind emerges from some brain activity
only the mind exists, the physical world is imagination
Who believed the heart causes behavior & who believed the brain causes behavior?
Aristotle- the heart causes behavior
Hippocrates/ Galen/ Descartes- the brain causes behavior
What did Galen and Descaartes believe controlled the brain?
Galen and Descartes believed that the brain controlled behavior by interacting with or moving the fluid in the ventricles
What did Galvani discover in the 18th century?
Galvani (18th century) discovered that electrical stimulation can cause a muscle to twitch
-Emil Du Bois-Reymond measured electrical currents in neural tissue
What are the two cells in the nervous system?
1. Neurons 2. Glial Cells
Neural Net Hypothesis
nervous system is a continuous mass of tissue
Neurons are individual cells
Neurons are cells that form basic unit of the nervous system
What are the two types of cells in the nervous system?
Neurons and Glial Cells
What are the different arguments to the question "are neurons individual cells"?
Neural Net Hypothesis, Cell Hypothesis, Neuron Doctrine
What are the major parts of the Neuron
What is the path information travels?
information travels from the soma through the dendrites then at the hillock the decision is made if the information continues
the neuron is encased by two layers of phospholipids (lipid bi-layer) the two layers are the hydrophilic loves water and the hydrophobic hates water, the hydrophilic part will line up on the outside and the hydrophobic layer will line up on the inside of the cell
gives neuron its shape and form, made of three proteins, #1 microtubules, #2 neurofiliment, #3 microfilament, these are constantly going through assembly and disassembly, so the changing of the cytoskeleton leads to changes in the brain
Soma (contains two important things)
the mitochondria (provides energy) and the nucleus (contains DNA)
DNA has instructions on how to make what?
proteins- in the nucleus so transcription and then translation can occur
Why are proteins important?
They form enzymes
the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body
At the very end of the axon is the axon terminal, at the axon terminal there is lots of mitochondria, synaptic vesicles (neurotransmitters)
How does material get transported to and from the terminal button (axon terminal)?
Axoplasmic Transport, Anterograde, Retrograde
moving forward (from soma to terminal button)
moving backwards (from terminal button to soma)
What are three functions of glial cells?
#1 help control the spread of neurotransmitters
#2 help keep nutrients
#3 contribute to how well the nervous system can regenerate after damage
What are Astrocytes cells?
(star cell), controls ions, physical support, maintains extracellular environment, phagocytosis, fill in space by absorbing or digesting dead or dying cells, it then divides and fills in space, provides nutrients
What are Microglia cells?
smallest Glial cell, helps clean up dead and dying tissue through phagocytosis, immune function in brain, microglia is meant to do good work but they could potentially cause more damage in the brain
What is the function of Oligodendrocytes
produce the myelin sheath for the central nervous system, brain and spinal cord, it occurs in segments, create 50-100 myelin's along the axon (myelin is like an onion layer around the axel)
What are Shwann Cells?
provides myelin for PNS (Peripheral nervous system) cells, outside the brain and spinal cord
How do neurons communicate with one another?
What are ions?
electrically charged particles, some have a positive charge
Can ions pass through the cell membrane?
NO our ions cannot pass through the cell membrane (it is semi permeable)
How do ions cross the membrane?
ion channels: ion selective, sodium channels only allow sodium to pass, some are gated and dont allow any to pass and some are open and allow everything to pass
What controls an ion channel gate?
chemicals or electrical charges
What forces will push an ion across an open ion channel?
Explain the difference between Diffusion and Electrostatic
Diffusion (Concentration gradient)
-move from high concentration to low concentration, moving down the concentration gradient
Electrostatic (electric gradient)
What is the potential of the resting membrane?
the difference in the charge between poles of the battery
What is happening when the membrane is at resting potential?
it is not actively processing information
-usually -65 or -70
-allows information to travel through the neuron
-it is essential for the neuron to have resting membrane potential in order for communication to occur
Explain how releasing an ion into the body can lead to death
When potassium floods into the blood system, it changes the concentration, we have a blood brain barrier that limits what gets into the brain, the brain is protected, but the heart relies on the resting membrane potential, without the resting membrane potential you will die
Why is there a resting membrane potential?
Because there is an unequal distribution of ions inside and outside the neuron
Why is there an unequal distribution of ions?
#1 Selective permeability of the cell membrane
#2 Sodium/Potassium Pump
Is there more sodium chloride outside the cell or inside the cell?
There is more sodium chloride outside the cell
The effect of diffusion and electrostatic on POTASSIUM
diffusion pushes out (from low to high concentration)
electrostatic pulls in (becauase it is more positive)
the effect of diffusion and electrostatic on CHLORIDE
diffusion pulls it in
electrostatic pulls it out
the effect of diffusion and electrostatic on SODIUM
diffusion pulls it in
Electrostatic pulls it in
**it cannot get into neuron even though it is being pulled in because the gates are closed
Explain the Sodium-Potassium Pump
-requires energy, when it is active it pumps out 3 sodium ions and pumps in 2 potassium ions
-constantly working to maintain unequal distribution of ions
makes the inside of the cell less negative/ more positive
*Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
EX: -70 to -60
makes the inside of the cell more negative/ less positive
*Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
EX: -70 to -80
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
tells the neuron to stop sending the message, it is in hyperpolarization
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
tells the neurons to get excited because information is going to be sent/ depolarization
What is the strength of hyperpolarization and depolarization?
They vary in strength, they can be intense or weak
-there are electrical charges and the current is going to flow across the cell membrane and as it does it creates strength
when EPSP and IPSP overlap over space and time what happens?
they cancel each other out, ultimately it matters how much the IPSP and the EPSP happen and how strong they are
What happens at the axon hillock?
IPSP and EPSP are summarized and if it reaches threshhold (-55) it triggers the action potential, the charge goes really positive and really negative then back to resting potential, this is called the action potential
What happens to the potassium channels during action potential?
potassium channels open and potassium leaves the cell, repolarizing it
What causes the increase and decrease of electrical charge in action potential?
the sodium causes the peak and the potassium causes it to go back down
Absolute Refractory Period
you absolutely cannot fire another action potential while it is in an action potential, you have to wait for it to get back down to resting membrane potential (its like a toilet you cannot flush it while it is flushing, you have to wait for it to be done)
Relative Refractory Period
the period shortly after the firing of a nerve fiber when partial repolarization has occurred and a greater than normal stimulus can stimulate a second response
Propagation of the action potential
it continues to depolarize and cause action potential all the way to the axon terminal, the speed that it travels depends on the size of the axon, a fat axon will have a faster speed in action potential, through evolution we can have smaller axons that still travel fast, myelin is what facilitates this
speeds up the propagation of the action potential , it shoots through the neuron and recharges at the node of ranvier
action potential leaps from node of ranvier to node of ranvier, facilitates the fast movement and the smooth movement of the action potential
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials & Action Potential
EPSP: graded/ dendrites and soma/ loses strength as it travels
Action Potential: all or none/ axon/ does not lose strength as it travels
explain the path that messages take through the neuron
info travels from the dendrites, through the soma to the axon hillock, then if there is an action potential (if threshhold is reached) it travels to the axon terminal (without losing strength) this is how messages travel through neurons
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