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BIOL 20A Midterm 2
Terms in this set (69)
Synthesis and breakdown of biomolecules
The core of metabolism and major function
Core: Glycolysis & Krebs Cycle
Function: ATP synthesis (produces ATP->key energy source)
and to make basic, raw materials (basic building blocks for all other biomolecules)
Metabolism Reaction Formula
Where is the free energy stored?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
ΔG = -686 kcal per mole
Much of this energy can be stored in ATP molecules
ATP is the most frequently used energy source for what specific reactions?
Pumps (are ATPase), Molecular Motors, Polymer synthesis
Structure of ATP
Ribose + Adenine + 3 Phosphates
ATP is ____, but reactive!
ATP bonds are _____ ______.
Products are more _____.
ATP is stable, but reactive!
ATP bonds are terminal phosphates.
Products are more stable.
ATP Hydrolysis Formula
ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi(inorganic Phosphate)
ΔG = -7.3 Kcal per mole
In cell, you can get about ___ ATPs for every glucose molecule
NADH carries 2 high energy electrons
NAD+ 2 e- + H+ → NADH
NADH is a _____.
dinucleotide e- carrier
NAD+ (NADH) stands for?
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Where are the 2 high energy electrons placed in NADH?
in the "different" part → Nicotinamide
Product of one reaction becomes the substrate of another → Glycolysis is a good ex.
Glycolysis takes place in ___ and ___.
Glycolysis takes place in almost all organisms in the cytosol of eucaryotic cells (not in any organelles)
How many enzymes and steps does Glycolysis have?
10 enzymes → 10 steps
Function of Glycolysis?
Make ATP & NADH & building blocks for the synthesis of other molecules
What goes into Glycolysis?
What goes out of Glycolysis?
IN→ Glucose, ATP, ADP, Pi, NAD+
OUT→ 2 Pyruvates, 2 ATPs, 2 NADH
Carbon Skeleton of Glycolysis
6 C "glucose" → TWO 3 C molecules "pyruvate"
-Short, metabolic pathway that allows for recycling of NADH to NAD+
-Net energy trapped per glucose: 2ATP
Net amount of ATP produced via fermentation
Net amount of ATP produced via Cell. Resp.
In our bodies:
Pyruvate + NADH → lactic acid + NAD+
In yeast (2 steps)
Pyruvate → acetylaldehyde + CO2
Acetylaldehyde + NADH → ethanol + NAD+
Use of pyruvate if oxygen is available (Cell. Resp.)
Pyruvate + NAD+ CoA → CO2 + NADH + acetyl CoA
Uses the acetyl group to make more ATP, NADH, and FADH2
How many enzymes and steps does the Krebs Cycle have?
8 enzymes → 8 steps
Function of the Krebs Cycle
to make ATP & NADH and FADH2 & "building blocks" (Kreb Cycle intermediates)
Take apart acetyl group In small steps
What goes into the Krebs Cycle?
What comes out of the Krebs Cycle?
IN→ Acetyl-CoA, 4Carbon Acid (OAA), ADP + Pi, NAD+, FAD
OUT→ OAA, 2 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2
Carbon Skeleton of the Krebs Cycle
2 C "acetyl" + 4C "OAA" → 6 C "citrate" → 5 C + CO2 → 4C + CO2
Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?
Matrix of the mitochondria
Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle produce
10 NADHs and 2 FADH2
Mitochondrial Enzymes use NADH and FADH2 to make ___?
Mitochondria have their own:
they have their own set of ribosomes, can make some proteins
Typical cell may have _____'s of mitos.
1,000s (especially abundant in muscle cells)
made oxidation of NADH go faster, but no ATP is made
make membranes leaky to protons
Peter Mitchell proposed:
electro chemical gradient responsible for making ATP
(Look in notes for diagram)
Jagendorf & Uribe
-Used chloroplast membranes, no NADH, no soluble enzymes
-Loaded vesicles with acid pH 4
-Put them into sol'n at pH 8, with ADP and Pi, got ATP synthesis
-not as convincing
Racker & Stoeckenius
-"artificial membranes" + bacteriorhodopsin + animal ATP synthase
-shine light → get ATP synthesis
Electron Transport Chain- Complex I
Complex I, NADH dehydrogenase
NADH passes electron to Quinone → NAD+ + QH2
~4 H+ pumped
Electron Transport Chain- Complex II
Complex II, NOT A PUMP
FADH2 passes electron to Quinone → FAD + QH2
Electron Transport Chain- Complex III
Complex III, cytochrome bc1
QH2 passes electrons to cytochrome c
~4 H+ pumped
Electron Transport Chain- Complex IV
Complex IV, cytochrome oxidase (=cytochrome aa3)
Cytochrome c passes electron to OXYGEN
~4 H+ pumped, makes H2O
Uses electrochemical gradient for protons
For every ___ protons moving through the enzyme, ___ ATP is made
for every 3 protons.... 1 ATP is made
ATP synthase is also called ATPase because...
...the reaction is reversible
What are the two names of the metabolic pathways?
1. Catabolic (breakdown of macro molecules)
2. Anabolic (synthesis of macro molecules)
Time of phase: M, G1, S, G2
M - 1 hr
G1 - 8 hrs
S - 8 hrs
G2 - 5 hrs
Phases of Mitosis
What happens in Prophase?
-chromosomes condense and become visible
-nuclear envelope disappears (breaks down into small vesicles) --> prometaphase
What happens in Metaphase?
-chromosomes line up in middle of cell
What happens in Anaphase?
-c'somes split and separate
-c'somes move to each pole of cell
What happens in Telophase?
-nuclear envelope reforms
Cloud of special proteins
Centriole and what it's made of
Centriole is at the center of the centrosome and it organizes the function of the MTs
made of microtubules
In animal cells?
In plant cells?
Division of cell
Animal cells --> actin and myosin (MFs) creating a contractile ring that pinches it into 2 cells
Plant cells --> vesicles containing cell wall, material fuse to form a cell plate (new membrane and wall) (((can't pinch cell wall)))
Humans are diploid, plants are polyploid, WHY diploid?
backup copy of genes
can make more DNA
contain same genes in same order
meiosis II turns diploid (2N) into ____ ?
major functions of meiosis II
reducing c'some # 2N -> 1N
allows for recombination
2 chromosome pair = ?
Place where c'somes join in a tetrad
In humans, the ABO blood type is a polymorphic trait. Describe the alleles and genotypes responsible for the polymorphism
"Polymorphism" means differences in the A, B, O alleles. A and B add different sugars, O adds no sugars
If #'s are evenly distributed, the genes are ___ linked on the same c'some
NOT (they are linked if the #s are not distributed nicely)
Griffith's experiment 1920s-
What was the test
What was the conclusion
Tested S (viral form) and R (benign form) on mice. Found out that mixing dead S strain with harmless R strain killed the mouse.
Conclusion: A chemical substance from one cell is capable of transforming another cell
Avery's experiment 1940s-
what did he do?
What did he find?
Treated dead S cells-
Found that if you added
proteinase --> no effect
RNAase --> no effect
DNAase --> inactivated S-cells
Conclusion: transforming substance is DNA
Hershey Chase experiment 1952-
What was the experiment?
Pellets vs liquid
found that most of the 32P(labels DNA) is in the pellet and the 35S(labels protein) was in the fluid
Conclusion: DNA enters bacterial cells
study with inherited diseases
concluded: inborn errors of metabolism
Beadle and Tatum
genetics exp. with haploid cells - fungus -
1.mutate cell with x-rays
3.grow in complete medium
4. test survivors
conclusion: there is a strain with a mutation in a gene
gene has to specify an enzyme
Watson and Crick
strand of nuclei
double helix model
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