163 terms

FILM STUDIES - LANGUAGE OF FILM

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Mise-en-scene
"Placing on stage"; everything you see in front of the camera and how it is arranged; setting, costuming, makeup, lighting, staging, etc
Deep space
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; in which the viewer can see far into distance on screen
Open framing
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; screen is framed so that viewer can see a lot of the action
Tight Framing
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; screen is framed so that viewer cannot see very much of the action
Active scenery
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; lots of movement, clutter, color on screen
Passive scenery
Scenic quality of mise-en scene; still, neutral, sparse on screen
shallow space
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; in which the viewer can only see a short distance on screen
Naturalistic setting
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; a film taking place/being shot in a real environment
Formalistic setting
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; a film taking place/being shot on a set or unnatural environment
Visible framing
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; when something is put between/ in front of the camera
Invisible framing
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; object is in the edges of the camera's view
Intimate prostemics
Objects and people are close together on screen
Distant prostemics
Scenic quality of mise-en-scene; objects and people are distant on screen
Scenic qualities of mise-en-scene
Deep v shallow space, open v tight framing, active/passive scenery, naturalistic/formalistic setting, visible/invisible framing, intimate/distant prostemics
Visual hierarchies of mise-en-scene
Higher over lower, larger over smaller, close over distant, right over left, center over periphery, edges, isolation over group, movement over stillness, movement left to right, movement up better down, light/color over shade, warm over cool colors
Higher over lower
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; People prefer to see things higher on screen rather than lower
Larger over smaller
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer to see larger objects on screen rather than smaller ones
Close over distant
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer close framing/objects on screen rather than distant
Right over left
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer to see things on right side of screen rather than left
Center over periphery
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer to see objects in center of screen rather than periphery
Edges
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; things on the fringes of screen; symbolizes insignificance, danger, points direction off screen, etc
Isolation over group
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer a singular person on screen rather than a group of people
Movement over stillness
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer movement in films more than stillness
Movement L-R
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer movement from left to right on screen
Movement up over movement down
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer movement of camera upwards because it is freeing, rather than downwards, because it is restricting
Light/color over shade
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer color and light over shade and b/w
Warm colors over cool colors
Visual hierarchy of mise-en-scene; people prefer warm colors on screen to cool colors
Diegesis
The narrative or plot or "world" of the film
external diegetic sound
Sound that all characters on screen can hear
Internal diegetic sound
Sound that only one character can hear
Types of sound
Speech, music, noise/sound effects
Textual speech
Type of sound/speech; non-diegetic, visual representation, common form of commentary
Non-diegetic sound
Sound that can only be heard by audience
diegetic sound
Sound that can be heard by characters and audience
Theatrical speech
Type of sound/speech; diegetic, character dialogue, considered relevant to action, does not affect imagery
Emanation
Type of sound/speech; diegetic, incoherent, crowd speech, barely audible
Screen music
Type of sound/music; diegetic, music that the characters can hear
Pit/soundtrack
Type of sound/music; non-diegetic, music that only the audience can hear
Ambient noise
Type of sound/noise; Noise that correlates with feeling of film, non-diegetic
Sound effects
Type of sound/noise; created sounds, diegetic
Properties of sound
Loudness, pitch, timbre, duration,
Loudness
Property of sound; measure of volume of the sound/music
Pitch
Property of sound; lowness or highness of the sound/music
Timbre
Property of sound; overtones/character of sound, diff instruments/keys
Duration
Property of sound; short v long amount of time sound/music is playing
Dimensions of sound
Rhythm/mood, fidelity, time
Empathetic
Dimension of sound/type of rhythm/mood; when image and sound are coordinated
Subtle correspondence
Dimension of sound/ type of rhythm/mood; diegetic, sound characters hear that corresponds with mood of film/scene
Mickey-mousing
Dimension of sound/type of rhythm/mood; non-diegetic, a sound that does not correlate with the action the sound should make (fart when book slams of table)
Disparity
Dimension of sound/type of rhythm/mood; when image/editing/sound do not match mood (an-empathetic)
fidelity
Relationship of sonic representation to sound source and acoustic conditions
Audiovisual contract
Dimension of sound/type of fidelity; tacit agreement or tendency to interpret sounds/images to be part of the same world
Materializing sound
Dimension of sound/type of fidelity; adds realism to acoustic impressions
Rendering
Dimension of sound/type of fidelity; Adds exaggerated or unrealistic sounds for effect (far off couple loud footsteps)
Phantom sound
Dimension of sound/type if fidelity; false perception based on formal of psychological expectations (hearing sounds not in film)
Synchronous viewing time
Dimension of sound/ type of time; sound/time it happens is synced (happening when supposed to) IN RELATION TO SOUND SOURCE
Delayed viewing time
Dimension of sound/type of time; sound/time it happens is delayed IN RELATION TO SOUND SOURCE
Simultaneous viewing time
Dimension of sound/type of time; sound/time/image is simultaneous;they happen together even if not supposed to IN RELATION TO SOUND SOURCE
simultaneous plot time
Dimension of sound/type of time; connection between what we hear/see in the now IN RELATION TO NARRATIVE EVENTS
Non-simultaneous plot time
Dimension of sound/type of time; source bonding, sonic flashback, sound bridge, sights and sound work on different chronology IN RELATION TO NARRATIVE EVENTS
Invisibility
Classic hollywood practices in sound; non diegetic music kept out of sight
Inaudibility
Classic hollywood practices in sound; music subordinated to narrative (image/dialogue)
Emotion
Classic hollywood practices in sound; presence of music in itself represents emotion/the irrational, epic feeling, elevation to the symbolic or to spectacle
Narrative cues
Classic hollywood practices in sound; music directs us through cinematic conventions: formal expectations (credits, montages), time/place, POV, action, orchestration/melodic conventions, characterization/associative reference or atmosphere
Lighting composition
Type of lighting; Shade/hues of lighting on screen
Lighting sources
Type of lighting; natural and artificial light (outside v studio)
Key lights
Type of light direction; straight on, do most of work, most important light
Fill lights
Type of light direction; comes in from side, offsets harsh shadows
Back lights
Type of light direction; behind the subject, gives outline, pushes subject forward
Kicker lights
Type of light direction; helps balance out other lights
Eye light
Type of light direction; brings eyes forward
Three point lighting
key-fill-back; large area of light, small area of shade, broad
Short lighting
mostly shaded lighting
Broad lighting
Mostly light
Rembrandt lighting
Triangle of light on the cheek
Butterfly lighting
Small shadow under nose
Alternative light forms
Unbalanced/ low key (film noir) and unusual direction (straight above, directly below)
Specifications of light
Intensity, wattage, distance, spectrum
Lighting contrast
High v low contrast
Reflectors
Type of lighting treatment; used to redirect sunlight
Cones/shoots
Type of lighting treatment; used to focus/redirect lights in precise shape
Cucoloris
Type of lighting treatment; used to create window shade effect (film noir)
Gels and filters
Type of lighting treatment; colored, used to change light effect
Filming treatments
Limit the amount of light coming through (filters, diffusers, scrims)
Flashing
Type of post-filming light treatment; expose the film just before or after narrows contrast)
Bleaching
Type of post-filming light treatment; solution to wash out everything
Composition of color
Arrangements of color
Spectrum of color
Wide v narrow, warm v cool, complimentary v non comp, etc
Hue
Quality of color; shade of color
Brightness
Quality of color; how much light reflected by color
Saturation
Quality of color; strength of color
Mise-en-scene color
Colors inherent to objects filmed
Color Filming treatments
Filmstock, exposure duration, filters
Post filming color treatments
Hand-painting, flashing, bleaching, computer colorization, fading
Uses of color
Realism, highlighting of objects/scenes, symbolism, emotional associations
Narrative
Plot/events in a film, THE FACTS, with unities of time action and place
Plot devices
Advance or resolve the plot of the film
Plot twist
Plot device; story changes quickly with a single event
Red herring
Plot device; decoy or macguffin, seemingly important event but not actually important, there to trow audience off
deus ex machina
Plot device; powerful force which influences events, order is restored, hollywood ending
Narration
The means by which the plot transmits/withholds info about the story
Conventional narrative
Narrative style; Classical narrative; order and disruption, clear goal, happy ending
Oedipal trajectory
Narrative style; love triangle, older man, girl, younger man, young man risks everything for girl to show her she should not be w other guy)
Unconventional narrative
Narrative style; post modern trajectory, mostly downward, no happy ending or clear goals
Omniscient Narrator
Narrative POV; Narrator who is able to know, see and tell all
Limited Omniscient
Narrative POV; when character is author's mouthpiece
First person
Narrative POV; narrator absorbed by character
Dramatic
Narrative POV; nearly completely objective, distant perspective (soliloquy)
Narrative tools
Symbolism, irony
dramatic irony
Narrative tool; When the audience knows something that the characters don't
Verbal Irony
Narrative tool; A figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant
situational irony
Narrative tool; a contrast between what the audience and a character expect and what actually happens
Rising action
Dramatic structure; builds suspense, exposition that sets tone and theme and conflicts of film
inciting incident
Dramatic structure; sets events of film into motion
Climax
Dramatic structure; Most exciting moment of the story; turning point
Falling action
Dramatic structure; resolution of conflicts, untying of plot threads
Direct character
Objective, nothing mysterious or withheld about character
Indirect character
Mysterious, subjective character
Static character
Character who doesn't change
Dynamic character
Character who undergoes change
Round character
Complex, multi-dimensional character
Flat character
Few defining characteristic traits
Stock character
Stereotypical archetypal characters
Cinematography
the art or technique of motion-picture photography
Speed of motion
ratio of frames filmed/projected per second
Industry standard of frames per second
24
Depth of field
The amount of focus in a shot
Shallow focus
Only certain distances from the camera are in focus
Deep focus
A wide range of distances from the camera are in focus
Racking focus
shifting the area of sharp focus from one plane to another during a shot
Y-axis angle
Vertical, straight on, high v low, birds eye
X-axis angle
Horizontal, side, 3/4
Dutch angle
Canted/tilted or skewed shot
Height
Distance of camera from ground
Extreme long shot
Landscape shots
Long shot
Whole figures with full background in shot
Medium long shot
Aka "cowboy shot" figures seen from knee up
Medium shot
Figures seen from waist up
Medium close up shot
Figures seen from chest up
Close-up shot
Head, hands, feet, some small object seen
Extreme close up
One eye, a nose, mouth, fills whole frame
Pan
Camera rotates L/R
Tilt
Camera rotates up/down
Tracking shot
A mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally.
Crane/jib shot
Camera moves through space above ground level
Steadicam Shot
Allows for fluid, steady tracking shots
Hand held camera
Creates bumpy jiggling tracking shot
Push in/pull out
Physically move camera in and out
Reframings/flowing shots
Keep characters in view as they move through space
Long take
Complete idea or action without any cuts in a scene
Cuts
Type of joins between shots, cut from one scene to the next
Optical effects
Type of join between shots, fade in/out, dissolve/wipe, superimposition, hard cuts
Narrative Graphic matching
Successive shots describe a series of events
Associative graphic matching
Symbolic or metaphoric association between objects and actions in successive shots
Rhythmic relations between shots
Patterns based on varying (inc/dec) shot durations
Parallel editing
TEMPORAL RELATION;Cutting between 2 simultaneously occurring events
Elliptical editing
Punctuation, cutaways, to shorten duration
Overlapping editing
Expansion of time through repetition of events in multiple shots
180 degree rule
Needed for graphic continuity and narrative consistency in a conversation between two characters
shot/reverse shot
Used when 2 characters share a scene
Cheat cut
prioritizes narrative over physical consistincies, creates illusion of continuity of space/motion
jump cuts
When spatial and temporal is in discontinuity, seems to be action missing (skips)
Kuleshov Effect
Viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of 2 sequential shits than from a single shot in isolation (guy to soup to guy to doll to guy to woman to guy)