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this function of the spinal cord carries sensory information to the brain for integration and carries motor responses from the brain to the effectos
this function of the spinal cord recieves sensory information and generates rapid, automatic motor responses that do not involve the brain.
this is the combination of 3 membrane layers that surround the spinal cord. It provides shock absorption, structural support
this is the outermost layer of the spinal meninges that is made of tough fiberous membrane. it is separated from the vertebral column by the epidural space
this arrea that separated the dura mater from the vertebral column contains blood vessels and adipose padding
this is the inner layer of the spinal meninges. it is firmly bonded to the surface of the spinal cord.
this area is between the pia mater and the dura mater. it is filled with cerebrospinal fluid and contains blood vessels
this is the test in which scientists take samples of CSP for analysis from the subarachnoid space
this is the outer layer of the spinal cord. it is made of MYELINATED axons that run up (sensory) and down (motor) the spinal cord
this is the inner layer. it is made up of UNMYELINATED axons, cell bodies, and neuroglia.
each of these branch from the spinal cord to become the peripheral nerves of the PNS. each pair of this monitors a specific region of the skin (dermatone)
these are adjacent spinal nerves that innervate skeletal muscles, blend to form complex networks
c4-t1. these are plexus innervating the pectoral girdle and upper limbs. it contains radical nerves, ulnar nerves, and median nerves
l4-c1. this plexus innervates the gluteal and posterior and lower limbs. it contains siatic nerves.
these are rapid, predictable, automatic responses to specific stimuli. they maintain homeostasis by making rapid adjustments to organs.
type of reflex where sensory neuron synapse with only a motor neuron. involves only one spinal segment
very simple and fast
EX: stretch reflex
protects skeletal muscle from over stretching. muscle spindles monitor the speed and intensity of a lengthening muscle. the motor neuron causes the stretched msucle to contract
type of relfex that sensory neuron synape with more than one interneuron. it involves one or more spinal segment and it is more complex with slower reaction time.
EX: tendon reflex
this protects skeletal muscles from over contracting. receptors called golgi tendon organs monitor the amount of tension in contracting muscle tendons. sensory neurons synapes with an inhibitory interneouron which interrupts motor neuron impulses to the contracting muscles, causing muscles to relax. this prevents damage to muscle tendon or bone (avulsion)
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