46 terms

CNF Vocab List

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essay
a short piece of non-fiction prose that treats a topic of general interest in a lively way
topic
what the essay is about; the subject of the essay
purpose
the essay's overall aim or intention: to entertain, inform, or persuade a particular audience with reference to a specific topic
audience
the person or people for whom an essay is written; those who are likely to read it
mode
a possible, customary, or preferred way of doing something; for our purposes, it designates the way an author chooses to organize and present all or part of the information or evidence in his/her essay
description
writing that appeals to any or all of the five senses
narration
writing that shows or gives an account of an event
anecdote
a brief narrative
process analysis
writing that explains how to do something
example/illustration
writing that gives specific instances to support a general idea; so called exemplification
definition
writing that gives an explanation of what something is or not
classification-division
writing that puts things into groups or separates something into parts
compare-contrast
writing that examines similarities and differences
cause-effect
writing that examines why something happens or exists
argumentation-persuasion
writing that proves a point by reasoning, often with the intention of convincing the readers to agree with his/her point
thesis
the attitude or position taken by a writer or speaker with the purpose of proving or supporting it.
conclusion
the part of the essay, usually at the end, that brings it to a natural close by summarizing the argument, restating the thesis, calling for some specific action, or explaining the significance of the topic just discussed
evidence
any material used to help support an argument
statistics
the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data
expert testimony
direct or indirect quotations from an authority, a person or organization with trustworthy knowledge or information about his/her/its specialized field
counter arguments
presented to discredit opposing arguments; refutation
signal phrases/attribution
indicate the author or source of supporting evidence, which may be quoted directly, especially if the language is striking or technical, or indirectly
plagiarism
a form of dishonesty which misleads the reader into believing that the ideas the author puts forth are her own
paraphrase
a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form
summary
an abstract, abridgment, or compendium, esp. of a preceding discourse
ethos
"moral competence," expertise and knowledge which the audience ascribes to the speaker or author
logos
persuasion that uses an appeal to logical arguments that requires the audience to draw its own conclusion based upon the argument and factual evidence presented
logic
the science of correct reasoning
inductive
offering a number of examples and then concluding with a general truth or principle
deductive
a form of logical reasoning that begins with a general assertion and then presents specific details and examples in support of that generalization
fallacy
an incorrect conclusion derived from faulty reasoning
transition
a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph that leads from one concept or idea to the next
pathos
persuasion that uses appeals that involve feelings, values, or emotions
formal
highly organized and thoroughly researched; it may sound more objective
informal
lighter in tone and usually reflects the writer's feelings and personality
tone
a writer's attitude or point of view toward his or her subject
subjective
revealing personal feelings and attitudes
objective
detached, impersonal, and factual
point of view
the angle from which the author sees or presents his or her subject
sarcasm
a form of irony that attacks a person or belief through harsh and bitter remarks that often mean the opposite of what they say
irony
an attribute of statements in which the meaning is different or more complicated than it seems
satire
a literary technique that attacks foolishness by making fun of it
parody
making fun of a person, an event, or a work of literature through exaggerated imitation
paradox
a seemingly self-contradictory statement that contains an element of truth
allusion
a reference to a well-known person, place, or event from life or literature
analogy
an extended comparison of two dissimilar objects or ideas