Zimmerman and West - 1975
Men interrupt women more than women interrupt men. Women more likely to accept interruption than men. 31 conversations - dated, American, small scale.
O'Barr and Atkins - 1980
Language used is situation specific. 30 months - took ten basic features from Lakoff.Language of courtrooms; analysed court cases. Witnesses used powerless language. Different ways of using language not based on gender - based on how powerful in situation.
Society is patriarchal, women are powerless. Male as norm. Language is patriarchal. Women are trapped in a male dominated society
Women do the work in conversations or the 'sh*t work' of conversation. Ask questions; propose topics - topics that men want - use lots of rising intonation. Men are using language to dominate women or to show their dominant position in society.
Statistically no difference between genders regarding interruptions. Recorded 10 hours of tutorial lessons and found over 500 interruptions. Equal as all were 'students' who shared the same status.
"Men Talk" - Rapid fire interchange - Insulted each other
- Playing the expert - Testing each other - Showed self as defiant
Goodwin - 1980-1990
Boys used commands with no politeness markers, and backed up commands with a desire statement "give me the... I want the..." Called these 'aggravated directives' - bald commands. Girls would use inclusive statements - "let's do it like this" suggested not commanded. Called this 'mitigated directives' - disguised commands. Used softening, tentative modality "maybe" soften as much as possible.
West - 1990
Male doctors preferred to use aggravated directives. Male doctors say what they need to - "You need to..." Female doctors use more mitigated directives, use "we" more than "you". Use tentative modality.
Engels - 1980
Fathers playing with children and mothers playing with children. Fathers tell children what to do while mothers consult the child on what to do.
Cook - 1997
Unusual as researched perceptions of people's language and focused on vocabulary. Judgements of others. Showed that people do have preconceptions as can place words. Can be prejudicial against others. Universal. Asked older and younger people - who both claimed the same words.
Tannen - 1990
MALES - Status, independence, advice, information, orders, conflict
FEMALES - Support, intimact, understanding, feelings, proposals, compromise
Accepts distinct ways of speech - takes many from Lakoff. Argues childhood friendships affect how we speak. Boys like gangs of friends and fight for positions and work out place. Girls have one or two best friends so support and nurture and take turns. Not to show dominance over women, but with other males as well as women.
Involvement strategies used in speech. Speech as three way system, not as: speaker > topic > listener
Two types - sound and meaning
Jones - 1980
Women's gossip - House talk: informing of concrete tasks. Practical. - Scandal: judging behaviour of others.
- Bitching: attacking men, how different and awkward they are. - Chatting: feelings and beliefs
Giles and Powersland - 1975
Accommodation theory - more concept than theory. That speakers change their style towards that of the listener. One-way convergence. Attracted to people with whom we are similar. Speaker changes to be more attentive to the listener.Looking for approval and attention, trying to show on same wavelength. Even if content is not appealing to listener, language is.
Bell - 1984
Audience Design tracked the same newscaster and how they spoke depending on what station they were on. Changed language to audience before they heard him. Mass communication but can occur on micro level - get approval from audience.
Spoken narrative structure - Abstract - (may not be there) indication of the type of narrative. - Orientation - scene setting. - Complicating Events - can be several or only one. Make story worth narrating. Clusters of detail around key points. - Resolution - ending of story, complicating events resolved. - Coda - (may not be there) moral/aftermath
Maxims of conversational cooperation - Quality - tell the truth - Quantity - say enough (not too much, not too little)
- Relation - keep to the topic - Manner - use an appropriate style
Motivated deviation - always a reason for disobeying maxims
Lakoff - 1975
Women's language as inferior to male language as women are inferior in society.
1. Hedging 2. Politeness 3. Tag questions 4. Emotional emphasis 5. Empty adjectives 6. Correct grammar and pronunciation 7. Lack of humour 8. Direct quotations 9. Extended vocabulary 10. Declarations with interrogative intonation