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38 terms

Chemistry Chapter 7

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symbol
shorthand for an atom of an element
formula
shorthand for the molecules or basic units of a compound
equation
shorthand for what happens during a chemical change
subscripts
in a chemical formula tell how many atoms of an element are present in that compund basic unit
coefficients
in a balanced equations tell how many units of each reactant are needed and how mant units of each product are made
coefficients
tell the reacting rate
law of conservation of atoms
the atoms present in the reactants are rearranged to form the products. atoms are not lost or gained during a reaction.
balance
put a coefficient in front of the formula
synthesis decomposition single replacement double replacement combustion
5 types of reactions
synthesis
small to big. A + B = AB
decomposition
big to small. AB = A + B
single replacement
A + BC = AC + B... metals have to be paired with a nonmetal
double replacement
AB + CD = AD + CB. metals have to be paired with a nonmetal
combustion
fuel + water = carbondioxide + water
chemical reactions
change the amount of chemical energy during a chemical reaction
chemical reactions
the bonds if the reactants are broken and the bonds of the products are made
requires, makes
breaking bonds ___ energy. forming new bonds ___ energy.
chemical reaction
during a ___ energy is either released or absoarbed from the surrondings
exothermic
gives off energy
endothermic
takes in energy
chemical energy
energy that is stored in the structure of a chemical bond
chemical energy
chemical reactions change the time of ___
broken
during a chemical reaction bonds are __ and energy is released
exothermic
energy is on the product side
endothermic
energy is on the reactant side
law of conservation
energy is not created or destroyed during chemical changes
rate
is not time
reaction time
is not reaction rate
reaction rates
tell you how fast a reaction is going
reaction rate
is the rate at which the reactants turn into products
temperature surface area stirring increasing and decreasing the concentration of the reactants catalysts
factors affecting reaction rate
temperature
increasing heat causes an increase in the average kinetic energy of the reactants. causing more motion. more motion = more collisions
surface area
amount of surface exposed, availible for reactions
surface area
can be increased by gridding and chopping. the more of this the faster the reaction will happen
stirring
increases the exposed area and rate of the reaction concentration
catalysts
change the way that a reaction happens
catalysts
are not used up in the reaction, usually speed up the reaction
inhibitors
slows down the reaction