CHM 141 Ch 4
Terms in this set (24)
MOST molecular compounds
how do nonelectrolytes act in water?
salts, strong bases, strong acids
ionic compounds that do not have hydroxide (OH⁻) as their anion
a substance that forms OH⁻ in water
MOH, Ca(OH)₂, Sr(OH)₂, B(OH)₂
common strong (soluble) bases
a substance that forms H⁺ in water
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO₃, HClO₄, H₂SO₄*
common strong acids
that sulfuric acid only acts as a strong acid for the loss of its 1st H⁺
what does the * on H₂SO₄ mean?
acids are __ compounds that form __ in water
weak acids & weak bases
acids that are NOT on the strong list (i.e. HF, HC₂H₃O₂, HNO₂, H₂CO₃, H₂SO₃, H₃PO₄)
mostly molecules in water, a little bit of ions in water
how do weak acids act in water?
common weak bases
forms NH₄⁺ and OH⁻
how does NH₃ act in/with water?
precipitation reactions, acid-based neutralization reactions, and gas formation reactions
metal-displacement reactions and hydrogen-displacement reactions
oxidation reduction reactions
AB and CD both soluble ionic compounds, AD or CB is an insoluble ionic compound (precipitate)
metal hydroxide bases or ammonia as a weak base
Acid-Based Neutralization Reactions
acid + base → salt + water
salt cation = base, anion = acid
metal hydroxide bases
Acid + NH₃ → NH₄⁺ Salt (anion from acid)
NH₃ as a weak base
metal carbonate + acid → salt + CO₂ (g) + H₂O (l)
(salt anion = acid)
gas formation reactions
involves a change in "oxidation numbers" of atoms
on an activity series of metals, any metal will displace the metals ___ it from their compounds in aqueous solution. any metal ___ H₂ will displace it from acids and form the corresponding salt.