37 terms

8th Science, 1st Nine Weeks

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hypothesis
A possible explanation or answer to a question
independent variable
A manipulated/changed factor which is indicated on the X axis of a graph
dependent variable
Measurable/response to change factor which is indicated on the Y axis
constants
A factor that does not change in a specific inquiry/lab
controls
A factor of comparison in a scientific inquiry that is not tested
matter
Anything that has volume and mass
particle theory of matter
All matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms.
element
A pure substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
compound
A pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined
mixture
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
solvent
The substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
ph scale
A measure of hydronium ion concentration in a solution
base
Any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
salt
An ionic compound formed from the positive ion of a base and the negative ion of an acid
acid
Any compound that increases the number of hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
solute
The substance that is dissolved to form a solution
inorganic compound
A compound that does not contain carbon
organic compound
A compound that contains carbon
density
The amount of matter in a given space; mass per unit volume
physical property
A property of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter
chemical property
A property of matter that describes a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties
physical change
A change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance.
(Many physical changes are easy to undo)
celsius temperature scale
The temperature scale used by most scientist
kelvin temperature scale
The SI unit for temperature
absolute zero
Lowest temperature on the Kelvin scale
heat
The transfer of energy between objects that are at different temperatures
temperature
Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
phase change
The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another
freezing point
The change of state from a solid to a liquid
melting point
The temperature at which the substance changes from a solid to a liquid
boiling point
The temperature at which a liquid boils
vaporization
The change of state from a liquid to a gas
condensation
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
conduction
The transfer of thermal energy
through direct contact
convection
The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a liquid or a gas
radiation
The transfer of energy through matter or space as an electromagnetic wave
heat transfer
The process whereby heat moves from one body or substance to another by radiation, conduction, or convection
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