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MU 342 Assessment One
Terms in this set (146)
Part of the outer ear that catches sound waves.
Ear canal (external auditory meatus)
Pathway between the outer and middle ear. Channels air pressure waves to the eardrum. Also acts as a resonator and amplifies sounds 2000-4000 Hz as much as 15 dB (for music and speech). Also controls temperature and humidity of the eardrum.
Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)
Receives air pressure waves from the atmosphere via the ear canal and vibrates in accordance with the frequency and intensity of the waves. Transmits a wide variety of vibrations.
Attached to the eardrum. Receives vibrations from the eardrum. Sends vibrations to the anvil or incus
Receives vibrations from the malleus/hammer and sends them to the stapes/stirrup.
Receives vibrations from the incus/anvil and sends them to the oval window. All three of the auditory bones, the smallest bones in the body, work together to send along vibrations and amplify the vibrations
Separates the air-filled middle ear cavity from the fluid-filled inner ear. Transmits mechanical energy in to fluid-filled cochlea
Connects to the bottom part of the cochlea. Aids fluid motion within the cochlea and serves to equalize the hydraulic pressure
Three loops embedded in the temporal bone; aid in balance and have no function with hearing.
Spiral-shaped body in the inner ear of two and a half turns. There are 3 chambers in the cochlea: the cochlear duct, scala vistibuli, and scala tympani.
Runs through the middle of the cochlea and separates the two scala. All along the cochlear duct is the basilar membrane.
Canal above the cochlear duct that is filled with a fluid like perilymph similar to spinal fluid
Canal below the cochlear duct that comes around the oval window. It is also filled with perilymph and
The final destination of vibrations before sound perception begins. The membrane gets more narrow the further from the middle ear it gets. Lower frequencies vibrate further away from where the membrane connects to the middle ear and higher frequencies vibrate closer. Multiple parts of the membrane can vibrate at once.
Organ of corti
The sensory organ on the basilar membrane that contains the auditory hair cells called celia.
One row of inner hair cells: sending frequency info to the brain, and 3 rows of outer cells: to modulate sensitivity, so they respond to messages from the brain
The axon bundle that transmits neural impulses from the organ of Corti to the brain
Sound goes from auditory nerve to cochlear nucleus where it is sorted, enhanced, and encoded; sends information to superior olivary complex
Ventral cochlear nucleus
Lower frequencies go from the auditory nerve to this nucleus
Dorsal cochlear nucleus
Higher frequencies go from the auditory nerve to this nucleus
Superior olivary complex
Combine from both ears, tonitopically organized; where sound integration happens;
sends information to inferior colliculus
Last point where fibers cross; involved in binaural integration
Medial geniculate body
In the thalamus; provide frequency information to the auditory cortex; final relay station before the auditory pathway reaches the cortex
Communicates with virtually all areas of the brain, including the cortex and spinal cord;
responsible for arousal, filters sensory information
Right and left sides of the brain; integration, interpretation, and understanding
Sensory cortex in the brain
Brodmann area 41
Primary auditory complex
Brodmann area 42
Association auditory complex
Where is music present in American society?
a) From birth to death
b) From lowest to highest cognitive functioning
c) From one person to thousands
d) All of the above
D, all of the above
True or false: Social bonds within a musical group are often as close as family relationships and a new member may need time to feel totally comfortable and accepted by the group
What is the extra social dynamic that has to be considered when an ensemble requires a conductor?
The conductor must bend individual wills to his or her/own and this can cause a potentially charged social situation
What is the name of the orchestra that the text refers to as "conductorless?"
The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra
True or false: music can serve as a socializing agent
True! Musical influences begin from infancy and continue throughout our lives
True or false: Music is pervasive
True or false: The music that is played in a retail setting has no effect on our spending habits
Who is the father of modern music psychology?
ESM or experience sampling method
What is the research method where researchers would call participants at random times and ask them for qualitative information about the music they were listening to?
John Cage defines music as:
Sound heard within a period of time
What is the Sorites paradox?
How many grains of sand are in a heap? How many hairs have to be on a head for it to not be considered bald? When does silence become sound and when does sound become music?
True or false: John Cage believes ambient noise is silence
True or false: plasticity or the ability to change is what makes us human
The intellectual approach; Meaning comes from the music itself
The feeling approach; meaning comes from the expression of human feelings
Meaning is found in extramusical referents, or in factors outside the music
The golden mean (definition)
A mathematical principle using the fibonacci series that provides a rational explanation of beauty
The golden mean (in popular music)
The peak point of a song comes at about 2/3 of the way through the song
True or false: popular music is getting less repetitive over time
There is evidence for the survival benefit of music in...
a) Parent-infant bonding
b) Acquisition of language
c) A unique mode of knowing
d) Social organization
e) All of the above
E, all of the above
True or false: early artistic behaviors in humans started around 1,000 years ago
False; they started as much as 500,000 years ago!
True or false: Music is a human invariant, meaning music is seen by many as being universal among humans
A to and fro motion
The perceived psychological sensation produced by vibration
The simplest form of vibration, a wave with only one frequency, repeated over and over
Number of cycles per second
Frequency is measured in:
a) Decibels (dB)
c) Hertz (Hz)
d) Meters per second
C, Hertz (Hz)
How many cycles per second is 261 Hz?
261 cycles per second
Natural frequency point at which an object vibrates
Amount of energy or intensity in a vibration
Amplitude is measured in...
a) Decibels (dB)
c) Hertz (Hz)
d) Meters per second
A, decibels (dB)
True or false: higher dB levels are required for higher pitches
False; high dB for low pitches
The physical constructs of sound are...
e) none of the above
f) all of the above
F, all of the above
True or false: in the initiation of a vibration, a mechanism, vibrating element, and resonator are all required
How can we tell instruments apart?
Shape and size of the resonator determines the harmonic make-up of the sound
What is the first harmonic called?
Frequencies above the fundamental that are the result of complex vibration
The second overtone is ____________ the wavelength of the fundamental
d) Equal to
What is the speed of sound through air in a 70 degree room?
~1,128 feet per second
How do you determine the speed of sound for a temperature change from 70 degrees?
1 foot/second for every degree fahrenheit
The physical distance a sound wave covers in 1 second
The psychological constructs of sound are...
e) A and B only
f) All of the above
F, All of the above
True or false: To determine the size of a tube to make a c4 sound, we divide 4.32 by 2 and it is 2.6 feet long
Envelope of sound
Important for determination of characteristic timbre
The four parts of the envelope of sound in order are...
a) Attack, decay, sustain, release
b) Attack, release, decay, sustain
c) Attack, sustain, release, decay
d) Attack, release, sustain, decay
A, attack, decay, sustain, release
True or false: Noise can be described as periodic sound
False; noise is aperiodic
Acoustical energy is dissipated as it travels through a medium
True or false: Absorption is greater for high frequency sounds than low frequency sounds
When a sound wave encounters a barrier, energy that is not transmitted through the barrier or absorbed bounces off
Sound bends around an object or through a small opening and goes out from a source in multiple directions
True or false: Lower frequencies don't bounce off surfaces as easily as higher frequencies
Direction and speed of a sound waves can change as it encounters a different medium
The effect of one set of sounds impinging upon the perception of another set of sounds
If two sound sources produce the same wavelength that are 180 degrees out of phase they are cancelled out
True or false: frequency and wavelength have an inverse relationship
True or false: Timbre is determined largely by decay
False; timbre is largely determined by attack
True or false: Lower frequency longer sustain
What are the 6 degrees of hearing loss?
Slight (16-25 dB)
Mild (26-40 dB)
Moderate (41-55 dB)
Moderately severe (56-70 dB)
Severe (71-90 dB)
Profound (over 90 dB)
True or false: Hearing loss is very often frequency based
Conductive hearing loss
Blockage or damage of the outer to middle ear
Conductive hearing loss is caused by all of the following except...
a) Ear wax
b) A malfunction in the stapes
c) With age
d) Repeat ear infections
C, with age
True or false: Tubes in the ears of children are placed there to prevent conductive hearing loss
Sensorineural hearing loss
Damage to the inner ear or sensory organ
Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by...
Death of cochlear hair cells
True or false: Hair cells within the cochlea have the ability to regenerate themselves after they die
False; when sensory hair cells die, they die
What type of sensorineural hearing loss occurs at the base of the cochlea?
High frequency loss
Age-related hearing loss
True or false: Baby boomers have higher prevalence of hearing loss because they were around for the advent of advanced sound systems
True or false: Hearing aids simply amplify sound
How many electrodes do cochlear implants have?
21 electrodes to hundreds of hair cells
True or false: Cochlear implants provide a salient representation of speech
Which of the following aid with hearing loss?
a) Bone anchored hearing aids (BAHAs)
b) Hearing aids
c) Cochlear implants
d) Assistive listening devices (ALDs)
e) All of the above
E, all of the above
True or false: Hip hop/rap and country music are best for people with cochlear implants because they are rhythm and/or lyric-based
There are certain parts of the basilar membrane that are activated by certain pitches;
reasonable for pitches above 200 Hz;
complex tones vibrate multiple parts of the membrane
True or false: Pitch perception starts at 20,000 Hz, ends at 200 Hz
True or false: Pitch perception does not go below 200 Hz because 100 Hz makes the whole membrane vibrate
When the hair cells transform vibrations into electrical energy, they are firing as a certain amount of Hz per second; hair cells can not fire any quicker than 1000 Hz per second
True or false: When we hear complex tones, we hear overtones separately
False; we hear them as one tone
Groups of hair cells firing together that can together fire above 1000 Hz per second
What are the two main facets of pitch perception?
The area of the basilar membrane that is stimulated (resonance regions) and the rate of hair cell firing (individually or in groups)
True or false: our brains can perceive a missing fundamental
True or false: the hearing devices in telephones operate at 300-400 Hz, thus not projecting lower frequencies, though we still hear them
How far apart pitches are form one another
True or false:Because of pitch chroma (pitch class) relationships, melodic lines are in unison, even when pitch heights are not the same
10 frequencies placed an octave apart, which creates an auditory illusion where the listener perceives the pitch to continue going up when it is actually just repeating
True or false: 1 out of every 10,000 people has perfect pitch
When does early training have to begin in order for a person to develop perfect pitch?
Less than 4 years old
True or false: Perfect pitch perception can improve with intensive training and there is a critical period before the age of 7 that would have to make this true
In relationship to other pitches, you can find a pitch
True or false: The same brain processes are used with relative and absolute pitch
False; relative pitch uses working memory and absolute pitch uses associative learning, or a memorization of the pitch of middle C
True or false: Frequencies closer to 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz need to be at a higher amplitude in order to be heard at the same loudness as frequencies closer to the middle of the range
What part of the auditory system codes for pitch?
The inner hair cells
True or false: When a hair cell reaches its maximum firing rate, it will then recruit more hair cells
True or false: timbre is changed based on pitch as well as playing style
True or false: Even if something doesn't seem very loud, it can be because as you up the decibel level by just 3 dB, your exposure time before hearing loss can occur gets cut in half
What are the two approaches to timbre perception?
Recognition of sound-generating object/sound source and multidimensional scaling/"timbre space," meaning recognition based upon a comparison
Brightness of sound
True or false: The oboe is viewed as darker than the trombone in the spectral centroid
Based on beat, tempo, meter, rhythm
True or false: We perceive that with familiar music, we take a longer time shopping and with unfamiliar music, we take a shorter time shopping, when in reality it is the other way around
What are the factors impacting duration perception?
c) Length of stimulus
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
D, all of the above
True or false: If the length of stimulus is under a second, people overestimate the duration and if it is over a second, people underestimate the duration
Beat induction; we match the beat around us