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49 terms

Milady - Chapter 7

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Electrical Current
is a form of energy that, when in motion exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects
Conductor
Any substance that is easily transmits electricity. Any metal can be this.
Insulator
Another name for non-conductor.
Insulator
A substance that does not easily transmit electricity. Rubber is this.
Complete circuit
is the path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its original source.
Direct Current (DC)
is constant, even flowing current that travels in on direction only. Example would be flashlight, cellular telephones and cordless electric drills produced by batteries.
Alternating Current (AC)
is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first i one direction and then the opposite direction. Hair dryers and curling irons that plug into the wall outlet use this produced by generators.
Rectifier
is an apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current.
Volt
is the unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor, much like the waters pressure that pushes the water molecules through the hose.
Voltage
Another name for Volt
Amp
is the unit that measures the strength of an electric current (the number of electrons flowing through a wire).
Ampere
Another name for Amp.
Milliampere
is one thousandth of an ampere.
Ohm
is a unit that measures teh resistance of an electric current.
Watt
is a measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second.
Kilowatt
is 1000 watts.
Fuse
is a special device that prevents excess current from passing through a circuit. It is designed to blow out or melt when the wire becomes too hot from overloading the circuit with too much current - Too many appliances or faulty equipment.
Circuit breaker
is a switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of overload. Circuit breakers have replaced fuses in modern electric circuits.
Grounding
is another way of promoting electrical safety. All electrical appliances must have at lease two electrical connections.
Underwriter's Laboratory
What does UL stand for?
Electrotherapy
Electrical facial treatments are commonly referred to as:
Modalities
Electrical treatments are often called:
Polarity
Indicates the negative or positive pole of an electric current.
Anode
Positive polls are usually red and called:
Cathode
Negative polls are usually black and called:
Galvanic/Faradic/Sinusoidal/Telsa High Frequency
Name the four modalities:
Galvanic Current
Unblock clogged pores, is the most commonly used modality and drive solutions deeper into the epidermis. It is a constant DC, having a positive and negative pole, and produces chemical changes when it passe through the tissues and flids of the body.
Active Electrode
is the electrode used on the area to be treated.
Inactive Electrode
is the positive pole from the active electrode.
Iontophoresis
is a term for the process of introducing water-soluble products into the skin with the used of electric current, such as positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine.
Cataphoresis
Forces acidic substances into deeper tissues by using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole.
Anaphoresis
is the process of forcing alkaline liquid into the tissue from the negative toward the positive pole.
Desincrustation
is a process which uses the negative pole to soften and emulsify grease deposits (oil) and blackheads in the hair follicles.
Faradic Current
is an alternating and interrupted current that produces mechanical reaction without a chemical effect.
Sinusoidal Current
is similar to faradic current and is also used during scalp and facial manipulations.
Microcurrent
is an extremely low level of electricity that mirror's the body's own natural electrical impulses. Through electrical stimulation, works by mimicking the way that the brain relays messages to the muscles. These treatments have also been shown to benefit stroke and paralysis patients.
Telsa High Frequency Current
is a thermal or heat producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration. It is commonly called violet ray and is used for both scalp and facial treatments.
Direct Surface Application
(High Frequency) The ethetician holds the hand-piece. Also, must hold the your finger on the glass electrode to prevent sparking.
Indirect Application
The client holds the tube electrode (with the metal coil inside). while the esthetician massages the face with her hands.
Infrared/ultraviolet/Visible Rays
The three light waves estheticians work with that produce germicidal reaction.
Visible Light
is electromagnetic radiation that that we can see.
Electromagnetic Radiation
Also called radiant energy, carries or radiates energy through space on waves.
Wavelength
The distance between two successive peaks is called:
UV/Infrared Rays
Also forms of electromagnetic radiation, but they are invisible because their wavelengths are beyond the visible spectrum of light. The waves make up 65% of natural sunlight.
Light Therapy
Another name for Phototherapy.
Red Light
Light used for dry skin types.
White
Light used for combination skin types.
Blue
Light used for oily skin types.
Photothermolysis
Process by which light from a laser is turned into heat.