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161 terms

Biology 1001 - Chapter 22 Part 1 Development

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mouth
What does the blastopore develop into in lower classes of animals?
parturition
Another word for birth.
exchange of nutrients, gases and wastes with blood of the mother
Function of the placenta in the embryonic development in mammals
embryonic, fetal
List the two main parts of human development
related animals share embryonic stages
Two supporting arguments for "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny": 1) _______, 2) higher animals evolved from lower animals
invagination
Name the process by which cells of the blastula fold inward to form the early gastrula.
mesoderm
From which embryonic germ layer does the reproductive system form?
induction
The means by which development of the embryo is usually orderly.
8 to 10 weeks
How old is the embryo at the end of the embryonic period?
neurula
In which stage of embryonic development does the embryo begin to grow in size?
thoracic, abdominal, cranial
Give example of three body cavities that develop from the coelom formed in the gastrula
late gastrula
In which stage of embryonic development does the yolk plug become apparent?
anus
What does the blastopore develop into in higher classes of animals?
gastrula
In which stage of embryonic development do the three distinct germ layers appear?
ooplasmic segregation
What is the term used to describe the fact that gene regulating substances are not distributed equally throughout the cytoplasm of an oocyte, resulting in daughter cells receiving different gene regulating substances and being able to turn on/off different genes?
notochord
What structure in an embryo induces formation of the nervous system?
dorsal
The neural plate forms on the dorsal or ventral side of the gastrula?
animal
Which pole of the embryo in cleavage stage are faster to divide?
brain and spinal chord
Into what structures does the neural tube form?
neurula
In which developmental stage does the neural plate appear?
mesoderm
The reproductive system develops from which embryonic germ layer?
animal
At which pole of the developing embryo does cleavage begin?
organizer
Part of the embryo that induces the formation of an adjacent organ - such as the notochord - by releasing one or more chemical substances.
refinement of organs and growth
what occurs in the fetal part of human development?
chorion
The outermost extra embryonic membrane that forms the fetal portion of the placenta in mammals?
chordata
Which phylum are humans classified into?
gene regulating substances
What is not distributed evenly throughout the cytoplasm that causes ooplasmic segregation?
east west
The third cleavage of preembryonic development goes in which direction?
2 but may be fused
How many placentas are involved in a pregnancy with fraternal twins?
mesoderm
In which germ layer of a developing embryo do coelom form?
gastrula
In which stage of embryonic development does the archenteron clearly appear?
conception
Another name for fertilization
inner cell mass
Totipotent cells that are found at the animal pole of the blastocyst.
endoderm
The respiratory system develops from which embryonic germ layer?
amnion
The extra embryonic membrane that contains fluid in which the embryo can be protected from drying out and protected from mechanical shocks.
phylum
Which level of taxonomic category is Chordata?
vegetal pole
Which portion of the embryo in the cleavage stage is creamy white?
2
How many amnions are involved in a pregnancy with fraternal twins?
which genes are turned on or off
What do gene regulating substances determine?
totipotent
Inner cell mass of the human blastula that have the potential to develop into a complete individual.
morphogenesis
The development process through which we are able to distinguish between an arm a leg.
ectoderm
Which germ layer lines the outside of the embryo?
cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula
What are the four stages of embryonic development that are shared by 5 classes of higher animals.
animal
In which hemisphere of a human blastocyst will you find the totipotent inner cell mass
conjoined twins
If the cleavage furrow does not completely separate the two halves of totipotent cells in a zygote, what is the result?
ectoderm, neural groove, neural tube, brain and spinal chord
Put these structures into their order of development in the embryo: neural groove, neural tube, brain and spinal chord, ectoderm.
reptile, bird, mammal (terrestrial vertebrate animals)
Which classes of animals develop extraembryonic membranes that support development but do not actually become part of the developing embryo?
first two weeks
Timing of preembryonic development.
length of pregnancy
What does the term "gestation period" refer to?
ectoderm
The nervous system develops from which embryonic germ layer?
posterior
Which end of the gastrula - anterior or posterior - invaginates?
Cells don't differentiate, and they die
What occurs when a daughter cell does not receive any of the grey crescent?
morphogenesis
the development process in which the shape and structure of an organism becomes evident.
identical twins
If the cleavage furrow fully separates two halves of totipotent cells in a zygote, what is the result?
chordates
All of the 5 classes of higher animals are ______.
endoderm
Which germ layer lines the archenteron?
zygote
Diploid cell formed by union of two gametes?
neural plate, neural groove, neural tube
List the three stages of the neurula.
gastrula
In which stage of embryonic development does invagination occur?
mesoderm
from which embryonic germ layer does the dermis of skin form?
2
how many zygotes were involved in a pregnancy with fraternal twins
growth
Name the process of development in which cells divide, get larger and divide again.
zygote
Another name for the fertilized egg.
blastocyst cavity
What is the term used in humans for the blastocoel?
ectoderm
Skin develops from which embryonic germ layer?
endoderm
The intestinal tract develops from which embryonic germ layer?
ectoderm
What does the notochord act upon to produce the neural plate?
they were conjoined twins
What were Cheng and Eng Bunker known for?
neural tube
Into what structure does the neural groove form?
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
List the 5 classes of higher animals that share the first four stages of embryonic development.
surrounds embryo with fluid to keep it moist and protect from mechanical shocks
Function of the amnion in embryonic development.
coelom
What are the cavities that form in the mesoderm called?
invagination
Term for the formation of a concave surface in the gastrula stage.
blastocoel
What is the name of the hollow inside a blastula?
blastocoel
Name the fluid-filled cavity of the blastula.
grey crescent, notochord
Two examples of induction
endoderm
From which embryonic germ layer does the urinary bladder form?
blastopore
The opening from the archenteron to the outside.
differentiation and morphogenesis
List two broad, major process of the human development process.
embryonic
Part of human development that consists of the formation of all major organs
the cells are denser
Why does the creamy white vegetal pole of the embryo usually roll to the bottom?
birth
What does parturition refer to?
embryonic
Part of human development that is most crucial in terms of mother taking in substances
zygote, morula
the cleavage stage of embryonic development that starts with a _______ and ends with a _______.
structure, function
Differentiation is the development process that occurs to individual cells when they become specialized in _______and ________.
evolutionary history
Ontogeny (progress of development of an individual organism) recapitulates (repeats) phylogeny (__________).
cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula
What are the four stages of embryonic development that are shared by 5 classes of higher animals.
third
The first occasion of east-west cell division in the developing embryo is at the ______ cleavage.
8 to 10 weeks
How old is the embryo when fetal development begins?
have a notochord at some stage of development
What do all chordates share?
neurula
In which developmental stage does the neural groove appear?
gastrula
In which stage of embryonic development does morphogenesis begin?
endoderm
From which embryonic germ layer does the epithelial lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts form?
differentiation
Name the development process when individual cells become specialized in structure and function.
yolk sac
The extra embryonic membrane that is the first site of blood cell formation in mammals.
2 but may be fused
How many chorions are involved in a pregnancy with fraternal twins?
mitosis
What major cellular process occurs in the cleavage stage of preembryonic development?
blastocoel
Name the fluid-filled cavity of the blastula.
bird and reptile
The yolk sac surrounds the yolk in the eggs of which classes of vertebrates?
morula
Which stage of embryonic development looks like a blackberry?
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
List the 5 classes of higher animals that share the first four stages of embryonic development.
1
How many placentas are involved in a pregnancy with identical twins?
archenteron
Name the cavity produced by the infolded (invaginated) layer of cells during gastrulation.
morula
Name the stage of development when the embryo is a solid ball of cells.
allantois
The extra embryonic membrane that contributes blood vessels to the formation of the umbilical cord.
progress of development of an individual organism
Ontogeny (__________) recapitulates (repeats) phylogeny (evolutionary history)
archenteron
Name for the primitive gut that appears in gastrula stage.
identical
Which type of twins are monozygotic?
neurula
In which stage of embryonic development do tissues begin to differentiate?
chorion
The extra embryonic membrane that lies just below the porous shell and functions in gas exchange for the embryos of nonmammalian land vertebrates.
first 2 months
Term of embryonic development
ectoderm
Out of which germ layer does the neural tube form?
animal
Which hemisphere of the blastula divides faster?
primitive gut
Another name for the archenteron.
animal
In which pole of the blastula does the blastocoel form?
late gastrula
Which stage of embryonic development is the yolk plug stage?
blastula
Name the stage of development when the embryo's cells undergo division in a manner that forms a layer of cells surrounding a hollow central cavity.
ectoderm
From which embryonic germ layer does the epithelial lining of oral cavity and rectum form?
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
List the three germ layers that appear in gastrula stage of embryonic development.
induction
What causes neurulation?
formation of all major organs
What occurs in the embryonic part of human development?
neural groove
Formation of what structure is characteristic of the neurula stage?
fertilization
Another word for conception
mesoderm
The skeleton develops from which embryonic germ layer?
fetal development
What term is used to refer to the last seven months of human development?
north south
The second cleavage of preembryonic development goes in which direction?
conception to birth
Period of development.
phylogeny
Term for evolutionary history of a species.
1
How many zygotes are involved in a pregnancy with identical twins?
morphogenesis
Name the process of development in which body parts become shaped and patterned into a certain form.
differentiation
The development process in which we can distinguish between bone cells, muscle cells and nerve cells.
ontogeny
Term for the progress of development of an individual organism.
mesoderm
Out of which germ layer does the notochord form?
conjoined twins
Another name for Siamese twins.
land animals
Which group has four extraembryonic membranes - aquatic animals or land animals?
allantois
The extra embryonic membrane that serves as a storage area for metabolic waste products in reptiles and birds.
third to ninth months
Term of fetal development
animal pole
Which portion of the embryo in the cleavage stage is dark coloured?
neurula
Which stage of embryonic development is characterized by a neural groove?
morphogenesis
The development process in which body parts take on a specialized shape or form.
mesoderm
The cardiovascular system develops from which embryonic germ layer?
animal, vegetal
What are the two poles of the zygote?
mesoderm
Muscles develop from which embryonic germ layer?
2 but 2 umbilical chords
How many amnions are involved in a pregnancy with identical twins?
mitosis or cleavage
By what process does the embryo divide with no increase in size?
amnion, allantois, chorion, yolk sac
What are the four extraembryonic membranes that surround and cover the embryos of land vertebrates?
gastrulation
Term for formation of germ layers.
allantois, yolk sac
List the extraembryonic membranes that have their roles redefined in mammalian development, becoming incorporated into the formation of the umbilical chord
not entirely (to some extent/partially)
Is the statement "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" correct?
nervous system
The beginning of tissue differentiation in the embryo leads to development of which body system?
fraternal
Which type of twins are dizygotic?
fetal
Part of human development that consists of refinement of the organs and growth.
differentiation
Name the process of development in which cells become specialized in structure and function.
similarities are not absolute
What is it about the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny that disproves the statement "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"?
north south
The first cleavage of preembryonic development goes in which direction?
1
How many chorions are involved in a pregnancy with identical twins?
land vertebrates
The embryos of which part of the animal kingdom are surrounded and covered by extraembryonic membranes, the amnion, allantois, chorion and yolk sac?
gastrula
Name the stage of development when the embryonic germ layers are forming.
notochord
What causes, but is not part of, the formation of the nervous system?
higher animals evolved from lower animals
Two supporting arguments for "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny": 1) related animals share embryonic stages, 2) __________.
vegetal
Which pole of the embryo after the 8-cell stage of cleavage has larger cells?