A division of power between a national government and the state governments
What powers does the National government have in the area of Criminal Justice?
Enforcement of federal criminal laws
what is the "deterrent effect" as it pertains to the criminal Justice system?
comes from punishing those violate the law. the defenders are publicly displayed as an example of what will likely happen to keep others from committing wrongful act.
What factors have caused federal involvement in criminal justice to expand?
The expansion of criminal activities across state borders; the war on terrorism.
Most criminal laws are written by ________ and are enforced by ______________?
state legistatures (courts) and enforced by state agencies
What is Plea Bargain
A plea bargain is a defendant's admission of guilt in exchange for a less severe punishment.
what are the pro's and con's of the plea bargain process?
pro's for plea bargains defendants get a lesser charge against them-meaning less time served.some charges against them are even dropped all together so they can walk when CJ are really after the bigger fish Con's for plea bargains defendants get labeled a rat or snitch by his friends and family. can't be trusted anymore that they will not sell their friends and family out as well to the criminal justice system if given the chance. public feels they got off too easy.
what is discretion in the Criminal Justice system? What are the Pro's and con's of using discretion in the criminal justice system?
Discrestion is when the police officers, prosecutors, judges choose not to press charges or to take it easier on them. PROS: More justice.
It means that they don't gather money for their paychecks (i.e. through tickets).
what are the challenges and benefits of Resource Dependency?
your resources are very limited as to exactly where you can actually excess them from and the actual amount availiable to the agency
" filtering process" ?
A screening operation; a process by which criminal justice officials screen out some cases while advancing others to the next level of decision making
4 major duties of the police?
1) keep peace 2) Apprehend violators and combat crime 3)Prevent crime 4) provide social services
what is a dual court system?
A separate judicial system for each state in addition to a national system
what are the major types of state and local correctional facilities and programs? what kind of organizations operate them?
Prisons, jails, probation, parole, intermediate sanctions, public nonprofit, and for profit agencies carry out these programs
flow of processes in the criminal justice system
each agency is responsible for a part of the decision making process. thus the police, prosecution, courts and corrections are bound together through a series of exchange relationship
what is a crime control model
A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders.Order as a value emphasize efficiency favoried by police. LOCK THEM UP AND THROW AWAY THE KEY
Due Process model
Law as a value, emphasizes freedom, protection from false accusations. TAKE IT SLOW.
a difference or inequality, the condition or fact of being unequal in age, rank or degree.
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
a form of racism consisting of the (alleged) policy of policemen who stop and search vehicles driven by persons belonging to particular racial groups.
pro's and con's of racial profiling
PROS: Helps do job quicker. CONS: humiliation and abuse of citizens
what is meant by racial or ethnic disparaities in criminal justice?
that racial and ethnic minorities are subjected to the criminal justice system at much higher rates than are the white majority