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Terms in this set (48)
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement.
The ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return.
- Just because the person has the ability to influence the behavior of others doesn't mean they actually will.
- Power can also be seen as the ability to resist the influence attempts of others (Leaders sometimes need to resist the influence of others, "high-ups" and do whats best for their unit) (They also need to resist the influence of their own employees and avoid being a "push-over")
Types of Power
Organizational Power and Personal Power
- Derive primarily from a person's position within the organization; These types of power are more formal in nature
- Legitimate power, Reward power and Coercive power
Derives from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as "formal authority".
- People with this power have some title
- They have the understood right to ask others to do things that are considered within the scope of their authority.
The power when a person has control over the resources and rewards another person wants
- People with this power have the ability to influence others if those being influenced believe they will get rewards by behaving in a certain way.
The power when a person has control over the punishment in an organization.
- This power operates primarily on the principle of fear and exists when a person believes another has the ability to punish him or her and is willing to use that power.
- The "something else" about them that provides additional capabilities to influence others.
- Expert power, referent power
Derives from a person's expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend.
- People with this power have a high track record, the ability to solve problems or specific knowledge that's necessary to accomplish tasks.
The power when others have the desire to identify and be associated with a person.
- This desire is derived from affection, admiration or loyalty toward a specific individual (because they have a good reputation, an attractive personality or a certain level of charisma)
situational variables that cause one style of leadership to be more effective than another
- Substitutability, discretion, centrality, and visibility
- The degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources.
- Leaders that control resources to which no one else has access to use their power to gain influence.
The degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own.
- if managers are forced to follow organizational policies and rules, their power to gain influence decreases.
Represents how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks.
- Leaders who perform critical task s and interact with others regularly have a greater ability to use their power to influence others.
How aware others are of a leader's power and position
- If a leader is known for having a position of power they are more likely to influence those around them.
The use of an actual behavior that causes behavior or attitudinal changes in others.
- Can be seen as directional (managers influencing employees)
- Can also be lateral (peers influencing peers)
- As well as upward (employees influencing managers)
- Rational Persuasion
- Inspirational Appeals
- Personal appeals
the use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
- proposal is important and feasible.
A tactic designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction.
- To use this tactic, managers must have insight into what kind of things are important to the target.
Occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
- This tactic increases commitment of target
Occurs when the leader is involved in helping to complete the task, providing required resources, or removing obstacles that make task completion difficult
The use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer.
- "sucking up"
Occur when the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty
- The stronger the friendship, the more successful the attempt is likely to be.
Used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request.
Occurs when the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally.
The use of coercive power through threats and demands.
Occurs when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target.
Responses to tactics
- Internalization (Most effective)
- Resistance (Least effective)
Occurs when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request.
Occurs when the targets of influence are willing to do what the leader asks, but they do it with a degree of ambivalence.
Occurs when the target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it.
Actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests.
The ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives.
- Networking ability and social astuteness
- Interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity
Accommodating (lose- win)
- High assertiveness, low cooperation
- One party attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results.
- high assertiveness, high cooperation
- Both parties work together to maximize outcomes
- low assertiveness, high cooperation
- One party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way.
- low assertiveness, low cooperation
- One party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, postpone the conflict to gather information, or let things cool down.
- moderate assertiveness, moderate cooperation
-Conflict is resolved through a give-and-take concessions
A process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences.
Distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining
Win-lose negotiating over a "fixed-pie" of resources
- Similar to competition for conflict resolution
Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution
- Similar to accommodation for conflict resolution
Preparation, Exchanging information, bargaining, closing and commitment
Power and Influence
- Has a moderate positive effect on Job Performance
- Has a moderate positive effect on Commitment
Alternative dispute resolution
A process by which two parties resolve conflicts through the use of a specially trained, neutral third party
Requires a third party to facilitate the dispute resolution process, though this third party has no formal authority to dictate a solution
Occurs when a third party determines a binding settlement to a dispute. (can be an individual or a group)
Which of these factors was largely responsible for building an audience of readers in the United States?
what case had its birth in a "wardrobe malfunction" at the super bowl?
Five rationalist arguments that are accepted as causes of war
True or False? Employees' lives outside of the workplace should only concern the supervisor when one's conduct negatively affects work performance or stands to harm the organization in some way.
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