10 terms

AP Art History Exam: Byzantine

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Hagia Sophia
c. 530, Rome
-Combination of centrally planned and axially planned church
-Exterior: plain and massive, little decoration
-Dome supported by pendentives
-Large central dome
-Cornice unifies space
-Large fields for mosaic decoration
-Minarets added in Islamic period
Iconostasis
A screen decorated with icons, which separatess the apse from the transept of a church
San Vitale
c. 530, Ravenna
-Eight sided church
-Plain exterior except porch added later in Renaissance
-Large windows for illuminating interior designs
-Interior has thin columns
St. Mark's
1050, Venice
-Five domes placed in a cross pattern
-Windows at base of dome illuminate brilliant moasics that cover every wall space above the first floor
-Figures are weightless in a field of gold mosaics
-Prominent iconostasis separates apse from nape
-Compartmentalized space of middle Byzantine architecture
St. Basil's
1500, Moscow
-Commissioned by Ivan the Terrible
-Tall, slender pyramidlike central tower crowned by small, onion-shaped dome
-Central spire surrounded by 8 small domes of various sizes with fanciful decorative surfaces
-Low, flat, rounded arches intermix with triangular forms and tall slender windowlike spaces
Justinian and Attendants
550, San Vitale
-Left is clergy, right is military
-SYmmetry, frontality
-Figures have no volume, seem to float, and overlap each other's fet
-Minimal background, golden background indicates timelessness
-Halo indicates saintliness, a semidivinity as head of church and state
Theodora and Attendants
550, San Vitale
-Slight displacement of absolute symmetry with Theodora, she plays a secondary role to her husband
-Richly robed empress and ladies at court
-Figures are flattened and weightless, barely a hint of a body can be detected beneath the drapery
Sant Apollinare mosaic
550, Sant'Apollinare, Ravenna
-Stark unadorned exterior brickwork echoes the crudeness of the outside world
-Interior richly decorated symbolizes the soul
-12 sheep represent the 12 apostles
-3 sheep are the apostles who witnessed Jesus's Transfiguration
-Moses and Elijah flank the cross
-Hand of God comes down and blesses the seen
-Increasing flatness of forms, moving awy from classical naturalistic depictions
Pendentive
A construction shaped like a triangle that transitions the space between flat walls and the base of a round dome
Triptych
A three-paneled painting or sculpture
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