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45 terms

Psych 101 Midterm-PCC-Ch2&3

Ch 2&3
STUDY
PLAY
The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the
suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
endocrine system.
Females with a history of physical abuse are at ________ risk for substance addiction. Those with a history of eating disorders are at risk
for ________ substance addiction.
increased; increased
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
psychoactive
Dendrites are branching extensions of
neurons.
After Paul's serious snow-skiing accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Wernicke's area. Because of the damage,
Paul is most likely to experience difficulty in
understanding what others are saying
The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called
dual processing.
REM sleep is
inhibited by alcohol Correct! and inhibited by sleeping pills.
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
dopamine.
The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the
cerebrum.
The British government classifies the highly addictive crystallized form of ________ as one of the most dangerous of drugs
methamphetamine
The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that
most mammals experience REM rebound.
Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological
specialty does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?
biological psychology
Brain regions that buzz with activity as people learn to perform a visual-discrimination task are especially likely to buzz again later as they
experience
REM sleep
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
REM sleep.
The auditory hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia are most closely linked with the activation of areas in their
temporal lobes.
While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door.
The man's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates
change blindness
Alcohol consumption tends to
decrease self-awareness and decrease impulse control
Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep.
Stage 1
Neurons that function within the brain and spinal cord are called
interneurons.
Prolonged and excessive drinking can shrink the brain most intensely in ________ who have ________ of a stomach enzyme that digests
alcohol.
women; less
Chronic sleep deprivation is likely to
promote obesity and impair memory.
Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that
people are more likely to dream of failure than of success
The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
hypothalamus.
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)
fMRI.
As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark, and handsome gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and
the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge's account represents the ________ content of her dream.
manifest
REM rebound involves the
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
A neural system at the border of the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the
limbic system.
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to
lapse into a coma
A picture of a dog is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient. At the same time a picture of a boy is flashed in the right
visual field. In identifying what she saw, the patient would be most likely to
verbally report that she saw a boy.
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)
lesion.
By forming thousands of new neurons each day, monkey brains illustrate
neurogenesis.
Smokers with ________ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue
smoking.
high
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
depression.
Consciousness is
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from
narcolepsy.
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ________ nervous system.
peripheral
A periodic, natural loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as
sleep.
Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked to the deterioration of neurons that produce
acetylcholine.
One biological basis for addiction involves brain activity in the ________ reward system
dopamine
The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________ nervous systems
peripheral
The ability to simultaneously copy different figures with the right and left hand is most characteristic of those whose ________ has been
cut.
corpus callosum
People's moral judgments are most likely to seem unrestrained by normal emotions if they have suffered damage to their
frontal cortex
The cocktail party effect provides an example of
selective attention