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Final Consumer Behavior Ch.13-16 and 18
Terms in this set (87)
factors over and above characteristics of the person and of the product
those temporary environmental and personal factors that form the contest within which a consumer activity occurs
What are the four types of situations?
the purchase situation
the usage situation
the disposition situation
those settings in which the consumer is exposed to either persona or non-personal communications
those settings where consumers acquire products and services
those settings where consumption occurs
Refers to the frequent issue faced by consumers of disposing products or product packages after or before product use.
What are the five key dimensions or characteristics which influence on consumer behavior?
geographical and institutional location, decor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, visible configurations of merchandise or other material surrounding the stimulus object
the sum of all the physical features of a retail environment
a servicescape when describing a service business
occurs when a person perceives that his or her movements are restricted beacause of limited space
refer to the effects of other people on a consumer in a consumption situation
deal with teh effect of time on consumer behavior
reason the consumption activity is occurring
the temporary physiological states and moods that a consumer brings to a consumption activity, they are not lasting characteristics
a socially defined occasion that triggers a set of interrelated behaviors that occur in a structured format and that have symbolic meaning
a response to a problem
the level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process
it is a temporary state influenced by the interaction of individual, product, and situational characteristics
Factors Affecting Purchase Involvement Level: Previous Experience
leads to low involvement
Factors Affecting Purchase Involvement Level: Interest
high product interest leads to high involvement
Factors Affecting Purchase Involvement Level: Perceived Risk
the higher the perceived risk the higher involvement
Factors Affecting Purchase Involvement Level: Situation
the circumstances of the situation change involvement
Factors Affecting Purchase Involvement Level: Social Visibility
Nominal Consumer Decision
the least complex hype of decision making. the consumer bases choices on past behavior and needs no other info. very low involvement. used for frequently purchased, low-cost goods and services that require very little decision effort
Limited Consumer Decisions
involves internal and limited external search, few alternatives, simple decision rules on a few attributes, and little postpurchase evaluation
middle ground between nominal and extended
Extended Consumer Decisions
occurs when there is a very high level of purchase involvement. extensive internal and external search followed by complex evaluation of multiple alternatives
correspond most closely to the traditional decision making perspective
dissonance is likely
What is the consumer decision process?
evaluation and selection
store choice and purchase
the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state that is sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process
the way an individual perceives his/her feelings and situation to be at the present time
the way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time
The desire to resolve a problem, once recognized, is dependent on which two factors:
-the magnitude or size of the discrepancy between the actual and desired states
-the relative importance of the problem
one the consumer is aware of or will become aware of in normal course of events
an inactive problem is one of which the consumer is not aware
focuses on a particular activity to determine what problems consumers encounter during the performance of the activity
Examines the purchase or use of a particular product or brand. Consumers may be asked about problems associated with using a product or brand
Starts with a problem and asks which activities, products, or brand are associated with (or perhaps could eliminate) those problems
Human Factors Research
attempts to determine human capabilities in areas such as vision, strength, response time, flexibility, and fatigue and the effect of these capabilities of lighting, temperature, and sound
Marketers are increasingly conducting research on the role of emotions in problem recognition and resolution
Generic Problem Recognition
involves a discrepancy between the actual and ideal that a variety of brands within a product category can reduce
Selective Problem Recognition
involves a discrepancy that a specific brand in a product class can reduce
the motivated activation of knowledge stored in memory or acquisition of information from the environment carried out by the consumer to reduce uncertainty and provide a basis for evaluation alternatives.
Information Search Depends On:
consumer's current level of knowledge
value of additional information
confidence in task
Search of long-term memory to determine if
1. a satisfactory solution is known
2. what are types of potential solutions, and
3. ways to compare the possible solutions.
If a resolution is not reached through internal search, then the search process is focused on relevant external information.
is done to acquire information and because the process is pleasurable.
the dimensions used to judge the merits of competing options.
They are the desired features or characteristics of the product class being considered.
Alternatives given consideration
Sources of Information: Memory
past searches, personal experiences, low-involvement learning
Sources of Information: Personal Sources
friends and family
Sources of Information: Independent Sources
magazines, consumer groups & government agencies
Sources of Information: Marketing Sources
sales personnel, wesites, & advertising
Sources of Information: Experimental Sources
inspection or product trial.
Online, Marketers face which three major issues?
1. How can they drive their information to consumers
2. How can they drive consumers to their information
3. How can online selling be utilized or integrated with existing channels
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
techniques to ensure that a company's web pages are accessible to search engines and improving the chances they are found.
Local Mobile Search
searches for information from a mobile device pertaining to the current (or future planned) geographic location of a consumer.
Which Factors Affect External Search?
a limited capacity for processing information.
tends to be more holistic. Brand is not decomposed into distinct components for separate evaluation. The focus is on the way a product will make the user feel as it is used.
involves the use of general attitudes, summary impressions, intuitions, no attribute-by-attribute comparisons are made.
requires knowledge of product attributes & involves attribute-by-attribute comparisons across brands.
the various dimensions, features, or benefits a consumer looks for in response to a specific problem.
Constant Sum Scales
a direct approach that asks the respondent to divide a given number of points, typically 100, among two or more attributes based on their importance to the person.
an indirect approach we can use to measure the relative importance of evaluative criteria.
An attribute used to stand for or indicate another attribute
high level of one attribute can offset a low level of another.
high level of one attribute cannot offset a low level of another
Establishes minimum required performance for each evaluative criterion.
Selects the first (or all) brand(s) that meet or exceed these minimum standards.
Establishes a minimum required performance for each important attribute (often a high level).
All brands that meet or exceed the performance level for any key attribute are acceptable.
1. Rank evaluative criteria in terms of importance
2. Cutoff point for each criterion is established.
Finally (in order of attribute importance) brands are eliminated if they fail to meet or exceed the cutoff continue until only one is left.
1. Rank evaluative criteria in terms of importance
2. Select the brand that performs best on the most important attribute.
3,If two or more brands tie, they are evaluated on the second most important attribute, & so on. Until one brand is left.
compensatory decision rule
states that the brand that rates highest on the sum of the consumer's judgments of the relevant evaluative criteria will be chosen.
occurs when a consumer has doubts or anxiety regarding the wisdom of a purchase. It is a function of:
-The degree of commitment or irrevocability of the decision
-The importance of the decision to the consumer
-The difficulty of choosing among the alternatives
-The individual's tendency to experience anxiety
What are approaches to reduce dissonance?
-Increase desirability of brand purchased
-Decrease the desirability of rejected brand
-Decrease the importance of the purchase
-Reverse the purchase decision
-Live with our choice and make future note
An understanding of how consumers use and consume products and services is important to managers.
refers to a consumer using a product in a new way.
occurs when a consumer actively acquires a product that then is not used or is used only sparingly relative to potential use.
What influences consumers' decision to complain?
-Level of dissatisfaction
-Cost/benefits of actions
-Demographics, culture, personality traits
-Attribution of blame
Firms need to satisfy consumer expectations by
1. Creating reasonable expectations through promotional efforts, and
2. Maintaining consistent quality so the reasonable expectations are fulfilled.
continue to buy the same brand though they do not have an emotional attachment to it.
the costs of finding, evaluating, and adopting another solution.
involves commitment to the brand - it is a biased behavioral response expressed over time.
turnover in a company's customer base.
an attempt to develop an ongoing, expanding exchange relationship with a firm's customers.
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