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111 terms

Lifespan final study guide 2

STUDY
PLAY
The field of ___ is the scientific study of age related changes in behavior, thinking, emotions, and personality.
Human development
The Christian doctrine of ___ is the basis for the theory that human development occurs as a result of how well or how poorly someone does at overcoming their innately sinful nature.
original sin
Who was the philosopher who believed that children are born with a mind which is a blank slate.
John Locke
As a developmental psychologist I believe that humans possess no inborn abilities and that a child's parents can mold them into whatever they want them to be. Which of the following would best describe my beliefs?
innate goodness
The idea that the earth contains a wide variety of life forms and that humans have developed as a result of interactions of heredity and environment was proposed by ____.
Charles Darwin
Assertions regarding lifespan development can be attributed to both G. Stanley Hall and Charles Darwin?
Milestones of childhood were similar to those that had taken place in development of the human species. Called these norms- average age at which milestones are reached.
What is the term that Arnold Gessell used to describe genetically programmed sequentially patterns of change such as puberty or menopause.
norms
Elsa was frequently neglected as a child. As an infant, she would be left in wet diapers and she was not fed on a regular schedule. Which of the following crises was not properly resolved?
Trust vs mistrust
According to Erikson, what is the central issue of adolescence?
identity vs role confusion
define generativity
The desire to establish and guide the next generation
Norah is thinking of her children and what they are to become. She wants to see them succeed. Which of Erikson's stages would Carolyn most likely be experiencing?
Generativity vs stagnation
A self-absorbed, nongernerative person who is not concerned with establishing and guiding a new generation will be at risk for which of the following?
stagnation
in classical conditioning, if the sour taste of lemon juice automatically causes your mouth to pucker, the lemon juice is the ___ and the pucker of the lips is ____.
unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response
If you are teaching a child to produce a reflexive response following a non-reflexive stimulus, which method of learning are you employing?
Classical conditioning
Classical conditioning plays an important role in which of the following?
infant attachement to parents
define the term conservation according to Piaget.
The idea that mass is the same regardless of shape
During which of piaget's stages does the child learn to manipulate ideas, concrete objects, or events, as well as to use abstract ideas and hypotheical situations
Formal operational
What theorist is know for the development of the sociocultural theory?
Lee vygotsky
Five year old Elena can tie her shoes, but she needs her mother's help to untie them. She also needs her mother's help to button her sweater. Vygotsky would suggest that this situation illustrates elena's __.
Zone of proximal development
An adult adapts a process to a child's developmental level in order to assist the child in developing a new skill or ability. What would Vygotsky call this process?
scaffolding
"social interactions are the most important contributors to a child's healthy development." Which of the following theorists would support this statement?
Lee Vygotsky
Where does fertilization of the ovum take place in normal pregnancy?
Fallopian tubes
The nucleus of the typical human cell contains how many chromosomes?
23 pairs
Chromosomes are composed of which of the following?
DNA
What is the term used to describe cells that unite at conception?
gametes
____ describes an individual's unique genetic blueprint, which is created from genes contributed by both parents.
genotype
Jane has red hair, which comes from a recessive gene. This must mean that she received the gene from ___.
both parents
what is a primary function of brain development in the first year of life?
4. Creating synapses and pruning them is the main function of brain development in the first year of life
At birth we lack the ability to perceive, think, or use language because which part of our brain is not well developed?
The cortex or convoluted gray matter that wraps around the midbrain
Each burst of synaptogenesis is followed by which of the following processes?
pruning to get rid of unnecessary pathways.
Animal studies have shown which of the following to be true?
The "use it or lose it" idea. The infant rats put into a stimulating environment had denser networks or neurons, dendrites, and synaptic connections in adulthood than the rats not raised in such settings.
Brain development in the first year of life emphasizes ___.
stimulating environments and placticity. **
Sam libes in a family with five siblings. There are always alot of stimulating activities and colored toys. Suzanne's family i poor and can't afford many toys. Most are broken. Which of the following best describes a likely difference in brain development between Sam and Suzanne?
Since Sam has a lot of stimuli in his life, he will create more synapses and have a better developed brain than Suzanne who has few stimuli.
What effect does watching tv have on the developing brain?
12. Watching TV can cause a child to have ADHD, but it has also been shown to increase vocabulary and social skills. The TV shows must be time limited and high quality.
What is the term that describes the organization of experiences into expectancies?
22. Schematic learning
Permanent changes in behavior that result from experience are examples of what?
learning.
When an infant cries, the caregiver responds by picking up the child, changing the diaper, and feeding. These actions by the caregiver serve as reinforcements, increasing the likelihood that the child will again communicate certain needs by crying. This demonstrates that even an infant learns through which type of conditioning?
operant conditioning.
____ theorist is credited by the development of the behaviorist perspective of language.
B.F. Skinner
Tine babbles and her mother responds to her by imitating the sounds Tina makes. This would appear to refute the belief that ___.
operant conditioning leads to language development.
Children learn rules of grammar before they learn the exceptions to them. In other words, the errors they make in language are associated with rules, not random patterns, as behaviorists suggested. This criticism represents the ideas of whom?
Noam Chomsky
What terminology would some theorists use to describe the innate language processor that children are born with?
Language acquisition device
Define attachment.
The emotional tie to a parent experienced by an infant from which the child derives security.
The emotional and behavioral predispositions present at birth are thought to be the foundation of personality. These predispositions are collectively referred to as ____.
temperament.
Roberto is 11 months old. He smiles a lot, is generally cheerful and shows little anxiety around strangers. Which type of temperament does Roberto have?
Easy children.
What term is used to describe the temperament of children who are less regular with their body functions and slower to develop stable eating and sleeping patterns?
Difficult children.
Define temperament
Inborn predispositions such as activity level that form the foundations of personality.
According to the trait theory, what is the opposite of approach/positive emotionality or sociability.
Inhibition and anxiety
What are the 2 neurotransmitters that regulate the brains response to new information and unusual situations.
Dopamine and serotonin.
What is associated with shyness
The more controlling parents were during play sessions when a child is young is directly associated to how shy a child is.
___ is the process of selecting experiences based on temperament.
Niche picking
What is another term for subjective self?
Existential self.
How does a child develop a subjective self?
He realizes that he can have an effect on things by interacting with objects.
What is the toddler's understanding that he or she is defined by membership in various categories, such as gender or personality characteristics?
Objective (categorical) self.
Grasping the objective self require what?
self-awareness.
According to Erikson, a preschooler's development is centered on ___.
new mobility and her accompanying desire for autonamy
A central theme that emerges from both Freud's and Erikson's view of development during preschool period is ____.
families must balance their children's emerging skills and desire for autonomy with thier parental need to protect and control thier children
CHildren who are able to classify other people into groups such as "people who are nice" and "people are are mean" are demonstrating which of the following?
person perception
According to Li-Grining, how do children learn impulse control?
gain experience, trial and error
In early childhood, what characterizes the development of the emotional self?
The ability to make themselves happy and the beginning of empathy
As the categorical self and the emotional self mature, waht new component of self-concept is likely to develop/
social self
what areas of the brain undergo major growth spurts during middle childhood?
sensory and motor
The attention span of the average fourth grader is much longer than that of the average first grader. Which of the following biological changes is primarily responsible for this?
mylinization of frontal love, reticulation, and nerves that link both
You are a nurse who is asked to place an IV in a patients non-dominant arm. What ability allows you to tell where the IV should be placed?
relative right to left orientation
Bicycle accidents account for __ of all cases of traumatic brain injury.
25%
__ poses the most significant health risks among school-aged children.
excessive weight gain, injury, asthma
Public health officials believe that the current levels of obesity among children and adults in the United States can be attributed to which of the following.
cultural pattern of decrease in physical activity and increase of high cal food
An example of what piaget termed concrete operations.
decentration and reversibility
define inductive logic
general principles are inferred with specific reasoning
what is the crisis of middle childhood according to erikson
industry vs inferiority
According to Erikson, children resolve the psychosocial task of middle childhood through their ___.
school relationships
According to trait theorists, what is the nature of temperament in middle childhood?
5 dimensions of personality
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Neuoticism
openness/intellect
During middle childhood, a new component of the self is added to the categorical, social, and emotional selves. This new component includes things like personality traits. What is the term for this new component?
psychological self
Define self efficacy
belief in one's capacity to cause an intended event to occur or to preform a task
Which of the following refers to children's global self-evaluation, which includes factors such as how well they like themselves or how happy they are?
self esteem
which of the following is a major influence in a child's self esteem?
mental comparisons of own's idea self and real self. also their feeling of support
which group of hormones is responsible for the development of the sex organ?
testosterone and estrogen
Which hormone is responsible for the development and overall rate of growth?
thyroxine
Which hormone is responsible for changes at puberty, particularly the development of the secondary sex characteristics in girls?
adrenal androgen
which Gland prompts the release of hormones from the other endocrine glands?
pituitary gland
During puberty the pituitary gland signals the adrenal glands to increase production of androgens. What is the term for this process?
adrenarche
What is the earliest sign of puberty for a female?
early changes in breasts and pubic hair
The changes in the patterns of physical growth and development that are known as the secular trend are most likely caused by which of the following?
significant changes in lifesyle or diet
Define menarche
1st menstration
Dawn has just turned thirteen years old, and she has recently experienced menarche. If Dawn become sexually active, will she be at risk for pregnancy?
Yes
Of the following events in boys puberty, which typically occurs earliest?
scrotum and testes get larger and scrotum reddens
Define spermarche?
first ejaculation
Erikson's central crisis of adolescence?
identity versus role confusion
According to Erikson, why do teenagers identify with peer groups?
forms a base of security
Marci's theory of adolescent identity achievement suggests that adolescent identity formation has 2 key parts. What are they?
a crisis and a commitment
Having a person investment in a specific role, value, goal, or ideology describes which of the following components of Marcia's theory?
commitment
A person who has chosen an occupation without having evaluated her values and options is in which stage of identity status according to Marcia?
Foreclosure
What might be an advantage of cultures which have clearly identified rites of passage into adulthood?
Helps to much easier separate childhood from adulthood
What statement about teenaged employment is true?
Teens in US work more than teens in other countries
Develop confidence, gain useful skills
What term is sued to describe an individual's belief in her capacity to cause an intended event to occur, or to perform a task successfully
Self efficacy
Locus of control is best defined by which of the following?
Individuals set of beliefs about the causes of events
Marcus has a flat tire on the way to work. He curses and says,"THis always happens to me" Marcus has known for several months that he needs to buy new tires for his car. This is example of what?
external locus
People are most likely to be happy and healthy when which of the following circumstances exists in their lives?
Ability to make realistic attributions
Among which age groups in the united states are STD's most common?
15-24 year olds
What condition is the result of another STD and can precent conception in women?
Pelvic inflammatory disease
According to erikson what is the central crisis of early adulthood?
intimacy versus isolation
What term describes the capacity to engage in supportive, affectionate relationship without losing one's own sense of self?
intimacy
What term was used by levinson to refer to the underlying pattern of an individual's life at a given time, including balances and conflicts among roles, relationships, and behavior patterns?
life structure
What term does jeffrey arnett use to refer to the developmental period between 17 and 22 years of age?
emerging adulthood
What describes neurological support for arnett's theory?
parts of the brain that underlie rational decision making are maturing in emerging adulthood
What component of evolutionary theory suggest that women and men have different mate selection priorities because they have unequal roles and responsibilities in production and caring for children?
parental investment theory
John is looking for a wife. He wants a partner who has a similar background in matters like education and religious upbringing. Which of the following mate selection strategies is John using?
assortative mating
What personality characteristics is identified by your text as a major contributor to dissatisfaction and instability in a marriage relationship?
neurociticism
What is related to higher levels of marriage satisfaction and stability?
favorable attitudes in both partners
what does reserach say about attachment and marriage
parental attachment relationship contributes to the construction of an internal model of intimate relationships
When marital relationships have negative effects on physical health, what is the physiological mechanism at work?
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What is the best example of validating marriage, as identified by psychologists?
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