Term coined by Dr. Samuel Johnson to describe 17th century lyrical poets who shared elements of content and style including Donne, Marvell, Cowley, Cleveland, Crashaw, Traherne, and Vaughan. They encouraged readers to see the world from new perspective by surprising them through use of paradoxes, contradictory imagery, original syntax, combinations of religious, philosophical, and artistic images, and extended metaphors called conceits. They didn't allude to mythology or nature but to science. Name for their transcendence. an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian. A leading transcendentalist, best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Resistance to Civil Government (also known as Civil Disobedience), an argument for disobedience to an unjust state. 1837-1901, overlaps with industrial revolution. Darwin Theory of evolution. Lots of novels. tend to be idealised portraits of difficult lives in which hard work, perseverance, love, and luck win out in the end; virtue would be rewarded and wrongdoers are suitably punished. While this formula was the basis for much of earlier Victorian fiction, the situation became more complex as the century progressed. There was a struggle to conquer the flaws of human beings with great virtues. It was a principle that those who struggle to attain morality would most probably achieve positive results in the end if not tortured by natural circumstances or evil vices. Dickens, Browning, Thackeray, Bronte, Austen, George Eliot, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. Intertextuality, Metafiction, Pastiche. Beckett, Vonnegut, Palahnuik. "father of english lit"
Canterbury tales - pilgrims going to canterbury: knights, millers, reeves, cooks, man of law, wife of bath, friar, summoner, clerks, merchants, squires, franklin, physician, pardoner, nuns priest.
Parlement of foules - Ciceros "dream of scipio"