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5 themes of geography

location, place, movement, human environment interactions, regions


A place that has a common characteristic throughout

Human Environment Interactions

How humans interact with the environment


Going from one place to another


Human/Physical characteristics of an area


Where things are

Formal Region

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics

Functional Region

A area with common characteristics, but not everything fits into those common characteristics

Vernacular Region (perseptual region)

Peoples' perception of a region

Spatial analysis

Study of where things are and why


Physical characteristics


Where a place is in relation to other places


the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume

Spatial Distribution

Where things are distributed in an area


Relationship between people/objects

Regional Studies Approach

Studying one area of the world

Topical Studies Approach

Studying the world as a whole


the act of dispersing or diffusing something

Hierarchal Diffusion

The spread of something through persons of power (like the fasion industry)

Contagious Diffusion

When something comes in contact with something else and spreads

Stimulus Diffusion

When one principle of the idea is spread, but not the whole thing (like if a certain clothing line became popular, and spread a button company around)

Relocation Diffusion

The spread of something by moving to another place


Where things originate

Environmental Determinism

When the environment determines culture


When people decide on their own culture, despite the environment

Cultural Ecology

Study of human environment interaction

Sequent Occupence

Every time a new group comes in, their is evidence of their culture

Space Time Compression

Through technology, the world is getting smaller

Arithmetic Density (general density)

Population per unit of land

Physiological Density

People per unit of arible land

Agricultural Density

Farmers per unit of arible land


Global Positioning System


Geographic Interface System


Map making


Putting the world on a flat map

Prime Meridian

Line of longitude going through Greenwitch England

Latitude (like a latter)

North and South

Longitude (going long)

East and West

Remote Sensing

Picture of earth from above


Land reclamed from sea using dikes

Types of distortion

direction, shape, size, distance

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