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Biochemistry Unit Review: Ch.2-5
Terms in this set (65)
The partial negative charge at one end of a water molecule is attracted to a partial positive charge of another water molecule. What type of attraction is this called?
A covalent chemical bond is one in which
outer shell electrons of 2 atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron shells of both atoms
When two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form
non polar covalent bonds
What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
a polar covalent bond
What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms and ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms
Which of the following explains most specifically the attraction of water molecules to one another?
Compare and contrast macro and micro elements
-both are necessary
-macro is needed in large quantities
-micro is needed in small quantities
What are valence electrons, and why are they so important?
-The electrons on the outer shell
-determine which elements can bond and what types of bonds will form
-determine an atom's chemical behaviors
When are atoms stable?
-according to the octet rule when their outer shell is full with 8 valence electrons
-except for hydrogen which only needs 2
Why is molecular shape so important?
it determines function
List and provide an example of the 4 types of chemical bonds. Describe how they form and discuss their relative strength because of how they form.
-nonpolar covalent: strongest, equal sharing
-polar covalent: unequal sharing, creates charges
-ionic: transfer of electrons between cation and anion
-hydrogen: attraction of a water molecule to the partially negative areas of other polar molecules
Water molecule can form hydrogen bonds with
compounds that have polar covalent bonds
one mole of glucose is
both 180 grams of glucose and 6.022 times 10^23 molecules of glucose
In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
polar covalent bonds
Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface tension of water?
water striders can walk across the surface of a small pond
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to one slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
Why does ice float in liquid water?
hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecule of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water
If the PH of a solution is increased from 5 to 7, how many more times concentrated is the solution?
Which statement most accurately describes the nature of the PH scale?
a PH of 5 is 100 time more acidic than a PH of 7
If the PH of a solution is decreased from 7 to 6 it means that
the concentration of H+ has increased 10 times to what it was at PH 7
What is the PH of blood?
All of the following statements are true regarding water except?
solid water (ice) is denser than liquid water
All of the following are characteristics of water except?
water molecules have very little attraction for each other
Which of the following is not considered to be an emergent property of water?
Which of the following is stored in the human liver for energy?
Describe the characteristics of carbon that make possible the building of a large variety of carbon-based biological molecules.
-it bonds easily with itself which allows it to form long chains
-its valence configuration of 4 allows it to form 4 nonpolar covalent bonds
-its most common partners are C, O, H, N
-all are compatible due to their valence configuration
Explain what a hydrocarbon is.
-an organic molecule made of only carbon and hydrogen that is hydrophobic
Why do hydrocarbons rarely live by themselves?
-they are hydrophobic which means they do not do well with water because of their lack of charges
-Since most living things are mostly water, including us, they would not work well because they are soluble in water
What are functional groups?
-a group of atoms attached to a carbon skeleton that have consistent properties
-do not exist on their own without a carbon skeleton
-the number and type of functional groups give properties to the molecule and determine the function
What effect do functional groups have on biological compounds?
-a simple change in one functional group can cause a molecule to have completely different properties
-ex: sex hormones can change from estradiol to testosterone and make you a boy or a girl due to a simple change in a functional group
What is an isomer?
-compounds with the same molecular formula but with different structures
Why are isomer's important in terms of biological chemistry?
-if they have the wrong structure they will perform the wrong function
-results in different molecular and chemical properties
-cause a big change in functions of molecules which can affect a system like the digestive system
List and describe 3 types of isomers.
-structural: no double bond on carbon
-geometric: double bond on carbon
What the is thalidomide?
-an enantiomer because the R and S forms
How is thalidomide an example go form=function?
-which are reflections of each other were mixed up in the pill which caused birth defects
-R form caused sleepiness and S forms caused birth defects
Which level of protein structure is most related to the specificity of the shape?
Which list of components characterizes RNA?
-Po group, ribose, uracil
What contains one or more double bonds with a kink in the carbon backbone?
unsaturated fatty acids
The major class of biological molecules that are not polymers
Linkages between the monomers of proteins
A structural carbohydrate found in plants
A secondary structure of proteins
alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
Which macromolecule is the main component of all cell membranes?
The process by which protein conformation is lost or broken down
An organic compound that is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
Polymers of carbohydrates and proteins are synthesized from monomers by
Which of the macromolecules below could be structural parts of the cell, enzymes, or involved in cell movement or communication?
Which 2 functional groups are always found in amino acids
carbonyl and amine
Hydrolysis is involved in which of the following?
the digestion of maltose to glucose
An inorganic compound
Contains peptide bonds
Used for thermal insulation in mammals
includes glycogen, chitin, and starch
Contains ribose or deoxyribose and phosphate
Main constituent of cell membranes
Information storage in the cell
Used for electrical insulation in vertebrate axons
polymer containing five-carbon sugars
ultimately determines the function of a single polypeptide
Amino acids in a specific order linked together by peptide bonds
Primarily determined by hydrogen bonding between amino backbones
Present only in proteins composed of multiple polypeptides
Ultimately determines the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
Glycogen and cellulose synthesis always produce which of the following as products
Recommended textbook explanations
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