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1st Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

2nd Amendment

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

3rd Amendment

In times of peace, citizens do not have to quarter soldiers

4th Amendment

Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures

5th Amendment

right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law

6th Amendment

right to a speedy and public trial. right to a fair jury. right to know what you are being accused of. right to see/hear witnesses against you. right to have a witness to help defend you. right to a lawyer.

7th Amendment

Right to a trial by jury in civil cases

8th Amendment

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

9/11 Terrorist Attacks on NYC & DC (2001)

planes hijacked by terrorists for destruction; blame pinned on Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, sought out in attempt to completely destroy terrorism

9th Amemdment

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people

10th Amendment

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

11th Amendment

Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.

12th Amendment

added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots

13th Amendment

This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.

14th Amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th Amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

16th Amendment

Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.

17th Amendment

Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

19th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

20-Negro Law

In 1863 this law was passed that exempted an owner or overseer of twenty or more slaves from service at war

20th Amendment

reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.

21st Amendment

Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment

22nd Amendment

Limits the president to two terms

23rd Amendment

Gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote

24th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.

25th Amendment

Clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.

26th Amendment

Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Ratified in 1971.

27th Amendment

first proposed in 1789, this amendment passed in 1992 prohibits congress from raising their own pay. pay raises may not take affect until the beginning of the next term.

1929 Stock Market Crash

Took place on October 29th, 1929. New York Stock Exchange. Caused by a near un-regulated market. Due to speculation. Sparked Great Depression in America which spread to the U.S.

Abraham Lincoln

16th president of the United States; helped preserve the United States by leading the defeat of the secessionist Confederacy; an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery.

An acre planted in corn provided enough food for approximately

200 people

Adam-Onis Treaty

spain resolve to give Florida to the US and the US gave up claims to Texas

Affirmative Action

a policy designed to redress past discrimination against minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities

Albany Plan of Union

colonies proposed colonial confederationunder lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "GrandCouncil"); never took effect

Albert Einstein

This 20th Century scientist revolutionized the way scientists thought about space, time and matter, the most notable being his theory of relativity.

Alexander Graham Bell

United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)

Alexander Hamilton

United States statesman and leader of the Federalists

All of the following statements about the Archaic peoples are true EXCEPT

hey had diets high in fat and carbohydrates.

American Federation of Labor

Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor

Anaconda plan

the Union (Northern) plan devised by General Winfield Scott to blockade the south and restrict its trade to win the war.

Andrew Carnegie

Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"

Andrew Jackson

7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency

Andrew Mellon

Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs

Anne Hutchinson's heresy of antinomianism called into question the

application of the colony's laws to those in possession of saving grace

Arab Spring

revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occuring in the Arab world. Early 2010s

Arrange the following in correct time order: (A) the restoration of the English monarchy, (B) the Puritans' Great Migration, (C) the founding of Jamestown, (D) the Protestant Reformation.

D, C, B, A

As compared to the Chesapeake colonies, New England had

a balanced gender ratio

Barack Obama

Fought for universal healthcare, equal rights for homosexuals and bisexuals, killed Bin Laden. Achieved economic recovery after the 2009 recession ( stock market rose over 15% in 2013 First Quarter). Garnered tremendous public support during his 2008 campaign but his support wained during his late first term and early second term.

Barbary Pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Barbary Pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

Bay of Pigs

An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.

The Beatles

a British band that had an enormous influence on popular music in the 1960s

Ben Bernanke

chairman of the Federal Reserve System. Replaced Alan Greenspan in 2006.

Benjamin Franklin

connected the colonies to Britain, opposed tounnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan

Berlin Airlift

airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin

Betty Friedan

United States feminist who founded a national organization for women

The "big mammals" of the Western Hemisphere were probably wiped out by

Clovis hunters

Bill Clinton

42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached

Bill Cosby

In 1965 he was the first black to have a starring role in a continuing network television dramatic series.

Bill Gates

United States computer entrepreneur whose software company made him the youngest multi-billionaire in the history of the United States

Bonus Army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash

Booker T. Washington

Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.

Boss Tweed

A political boss who carried corruption to new extremes, and cheated the city out of more than $100 million

Brigham Young

The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.

By founding a colony in North America, the London Company (later the Virginia Company) initially wanted to

make profits through the discovery of gold and silver.

Calvin Coolidge

Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased

Camp David Accords

A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel

Cesar Chavez

United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)

Charles Lindbergh

United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean.

Chinese Exclusion Act(1882)

Bill passed by Congress in response to labor disputes that prohibited all immigration from China until 1943.

CIA overthrow of Guatemala (1954

overthrew Pres. Guzman after he nationalized American fruit fields and accepted arms from USSR (communist sympathies)

CIA overthrow of Iran (1953)

installed Shah as dictator, overthrew Moussadegh (communist interests), in order to resist nationalization British oil holdings

Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960

commission on civil rights to attempt to guarantee the ballot to blacks; showed government's changing views of race relations. Lacked effective enforcement

The colony of New York

was originally settled by the Dutch and was then taken over by the English.

Committees of Correspondence

committees appointed fromdifferent colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies

Compromise of 1850

1) California admitted as free state, (2)territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico,(3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federalassumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6)new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A.Douglas

Compromise of 1877

Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river

Congress of Industrial Organizations

Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955

Cult of domesticity

idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands

Dawes Plan

The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible


June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Declaratory Act

allowed Parliament to completely legislateover the colonies, limited colonists' say


believed that God created the universe to act throughnatural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine

Dollar Diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries

Dorothea Dix

worked towards asylums for the mentally insane,worked alongside Mann

The driving force of New England's economy in the early eighteenth century was

the "triangular trade"

Dwight Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe then was elected to be Pres. of the USA

Early Jamestown nearly failed as a colony because of all of the following EXCEPT

poor leadership from Captain John Smith

Edward Bellamy

state-run economy to provide conflict-free society

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

organized Seneca Falls Convention,founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization

Elvis Presley

United States rock singer whose many hit records and flamboyant style greatly influenced American popular music


A famous rapper who rose to fame rapping on the roughs of his childhood. He is one of the only white rappers in the world, his reall name is Marshal mathers, in which he used to get the initals M&M, later Eminem, and then knewly called Slim Shady. Symbolized the racial boundaries that rap was able to overcome

England was slow to colonize in the New World in the sixteenth century because

it was torn by domestic political and religious differences

The Enlightenment

emphasis on human reason, logic, andscience (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity

Era of Good Feelings

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

Ernest Hemingway

One of the most popular writers of the 1920's who wrote "A Farewell to Arms". Part of the Lost Generation

Europeans usually viewed Native Americans as

racially and culturally inferior

Eventually, the London Company encouraged immigrants to come to Jamestown by offering them an opportunity to

own their own land

Fair Deal

Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing

Federal communications Commission

An agency of the federal government with authority to develop regulations for the broadcast media.


a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government

Federal Reserve Act

A 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply

First continental Congress

Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence

First New Deal

Established to serve the "three Rs" Relief for the people out of work, Recovery for business and the economy as a whole, and Reform of American economic institutions

Five civilized tribes

Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion

The flow of immigrants to the English colonies in the seventeenth century

was determined by political upheaval, religious persecution, and economic recession.

Forced busing

due to parents unhappy with encouraged segregation of schools, Supreme Court instituted forced busing policies (using school buses as a method of integration)

For slaveholders, skilled slaves were generally LESS _______ than field hands.


Franklin Pierce

an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.

Frank Lloyd Wright

Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.

Frank Sinatra

First to use his voice like an instrument. Teen idol of the 1940s. Nicknamed the King of Swoon

Frederick Douglass

runaway slave, well-known speaker on thecondition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips,founder of The North Star

Frederick W. Taylor

an engineer, an inventor, and a tennis player. He sought to eliminate wasted motion. Famous for scientific-management especially time-management studies.

French and Indian War

French threat at the borders was nolonger present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britai

Gay nineties

name for the decade of the 1890's, an especially excited time in American history

General Electric

Investor-created company that encouraged the spread of electricity; manufactured lightbulbs, and mainly made electricity available to more people cheaply. Also developed air brakes for trains.

George Herman Ruth

Also known as Babe Ruth, he became a celebrity with his record of hitting 60 home runs in one season lasted for more than 30 years

George H.W. Bush

republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation

George Lucas

United States screenwriter and filmmaker, Directed "American Graffiti" and "Star Wars"

George Washington

Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.

George W. Bush

43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001

George Whitefield

powerful speaker, toured the country andinspired many into Christianity

Gerald Ford

1974-1977, Republican, first non elected president and VP, he pardoned Nixon

The Glorious Revolution

William and Mary kicked James II outof England (exiled into France), allowed more power to thelegislatures

Good Neighbor Policy

FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region

The government of the Carolinas

was conceived by the Earl of Shaftesbury with help from John Locke.

The Great Awakening

began by Edwards to return to Puritanism,increased overall religious involvement, gave women more activeroles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughoutthe country; mainly affected towns and cities

Great Society

President Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the US

Greenback Party

Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.

Grover Cleveland

1885-1889, Democrat, "Grover the Good", issue - civil service reform, tariff, monopolies, refused to annex Hawaii

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam

The Half-Way Covenant

New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints

The Half-Way Covenant was intended to allow the baptism of

the children of those who were not church members

Harlem Renaissance

A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished.

Harpers Ferry (1859)

Brown aimed to create an armed slaverebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North

Harry Truman

Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb.

he economy of Carolina was

at first diverse in agriculture and then became dependent on rice as a staple.

he most distinctive feature of the Middle Colonies was

the ethnic and religious diversity in their populations

Henry Ford

United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production through the implentation of an assembly line

Henry Knox

In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secreatry of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

hip hop movement

ral movement that attained widespread popularity in the 1980s and '90s; also, the backing music for rap, the musical style incorporating rhythmic and/or rhyming speech that became the movement's most lasting and influential art form. symbolized racial tensions and the typical urban gangster, but also provided an escape from the hardships of urban life.


believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low rent/interracial, they lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, sexual revolution, new counter culture, Protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)

Horace Mann

worked to reform the American education system,abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix

Horizontal Integration

absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level

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