333 terms

APUSH Final Exam Review

In colonizing North America, the English monarchs
followed no central plan and granted charters and proprietorships for a variety of reasons.
The flow of immigrants to the English colonies in the seventeenth century
was determined by political upheaval, religious persecution, and economic recession.
By founding a colony in North America, the London Company (later the Virginia Company) initially wanted to
make profits through the discovery of gold and silver.
n the early days of the Virginia colony, the settlers
preferred searching for gold to farming or guarding the settlement.
The solution to the economic problems of Virginia was
he cultivation of tobacco.
The Lords Baltimore viewed their colonizing project as
a haven for English Catholics.
Pilgrims, or Separatists, left the Anglican Church because they
felt that it was still influenced too much by Catholic elements.
The colony of New York
was originally settled by the Dutch and was then taken over by the English.
he economy of Carolina was
at first diverse in agriculture and then became dependent on rice as a staple.
The seventeenth-century English colonies
had few common traits other than their loyalty to the monarch.
In the seventeenth century, the colonists in Massachusetts were more successful than Virginia's
in adopting a concept of corporate or community welfare.
The lives of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson indicate that
Massachusetts Bay faced difficulties in creating the perfect society in America.
In Massachusetts, the electorate consisted of
all adult male members of a Congregational Church.
William Penn's Frame of Government for his colony
was based on the ideas of James Harrington.
The government of the Carolinas
was conceived by the Earl of Shaftesbury with help from John Locke.
Hunters reached the Great Plains near what is now Calgary, Canada and found
a lush grassland populated by large animals
The "big mammals" of the Western Hemisphere were probably wiped out by
Clovis hunters
All of the following statements about the Archaic peoples are true EXCEPT
hey had diets high in fat and carbohydrates.
The people of Poverty Point
built an enormous and complex system of mound
The most important effect of corn planting on North America was
t allowed the transformation from hunting-gathering to farming societies.
An acre planted in corn provided enough food for approximately
200 people
ornfields in the Southwest stopped producing corn because
salt water diverted to the fields eventually produced toxic soil
When he sailed from Spain in 1492, Columbus intended to find
a new route to the Orient
Wherever Europeans went as explorers and settlers in the fifteenth century, they
mistreated the native people they encountered
Europeans usually viewed Native Americans as
racially and culturally inferior
England was slow to colonize in the New World in the sixteenth century because
it was torn by domestic political and religious differences
Early Jamestown nearly failed as a colony because of all of the following EXCEPT
poor leadership from Captain John Smith
Puritan reformers of the Anglican church hoped to focus the act of worship on
reading the Bible and analyzing the Scriptures
Anne Hutchinson's heresy of antinomianism called into question the
application of the colony's laws to those in possession of saving grace
Invading Europeans found Native American cultures that were remarkably
Richard Hakluyt's "Discourse on Western Planting" was
an essay promoting and justifying English colonization
Eventually, the London Company encouraged immigrants to come to Jamestown by offering them an opportunity to
own their own land
To establish a civil government for themselves, the Separatist Pilgrims at Plymouth Plantation signed the
Mayflower Compact
Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts Bay because he advocated
separation of church and state
The proprietary form of colonization became the usual form of planting English colonies following the
restoration of the English monarchy
Arrange the following in correct time order: (A) the restoration of the English monarchy, (B) the Puritans' Great Migration, (C) the founding of Jamestown, (D) the Protestant Reformation.
D, C, B, A
In which of the following pairs is the geographical subdivision NOT correctly matched with one of its colonies?
Chesapeake--New York
In 1676 frontier settlers rebelled against the royal governor of Virginia. This was
Bacon's Rebellion
For slaveholders, skilled slaves were generally LESS _______ than field hands.
As compared to the Chesapeake colonies, New England had
a balanced gender ratio
The primary local governing institution of the New England colonies was the
town meeting
The driving force of New England's economy in the early eighteenth century was
the "triangular trade"
he most distinctive feature of the Middle Colonies was
the ethnic and religious diversity in their populations
Most immigrants to England's seventeenth-century mainland American colonies
wanted to improve the condition of their own lives
In contrast to the New England colonies, the Chesapeake colonies had a
scarcity of women
Slavery in England's North American colonies was first used on a large scale
late in the seventeenth century when the demand for labor increased
In the colonial South,
most people were illiterate
n New England families it was usual that
children were held to strict obedience
The Half-Way Covenant was intended to allow the baptism of
the children of those who were not church members
In the 1680s, the English monarchy tried to gain greater control over the New England colonies by appointing Edmund Andros to govern the
Dominion of New England
John Peter Zenger was charged with
seditious libel
Northwest Passage
a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America
Social Reciprocity
society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly
who was john smith?
man who takes control of Jamestown "he who will not work will not eat"
The Half-Way Covenant
New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country
Affirmative Action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Roe vs. Wade
the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right ro privacy, which includes a woman's decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.
Operation Desert Storm
Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition.
North American Free Trade Agreement
NAFTA an alliance that merges canada, mexico and the united states into a single market
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Cesar Chavez
United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Five civilized tribes
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
Barbary Pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Nifty Fifties
The Good Times that followed WWII for America.
Gay nineties
name for the decade of the 1890's, an especially excited time in American history
XYZ Affair
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Suffolk Reserves
Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll
Midnight Judges
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Valley Forge
The site where George Washington and his troops endured a harsh winter without proper food, shelter, or clothing
Tea Act
tax on tea; made the east india company the only tea company allowed to colonists; reason for Tea Party (1773)
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Tallmadge Amendment
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
The Glorious Revolution
William and Mary kicked James II outof England (exiled into France), allowed more power to thelegislatures
James Oglethorpe
established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
The Enlightenment
emphasis on human reason, logic, andscience (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity
Benjamin Franklin
connected the colonies to Britain, opposed tounnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan
The Great Awakening
began by Edwards to return to Puritanism,increased overall religious involvement, gave women more activeroles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughoutthe country; mainly affected towns and cities
believed that God created the universe to act throughnatural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
George Whitefield
powerful speaker, toured the country andinspired many into Christianity
Jonathan Edwards
Puritan minister, led revivals, stressedimmediate repentance
New Lights vs. Old Lights
New Lights brought new ideas,rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independentof each other
Albany Plan of Union
colonies proposed colonial confederationunder lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "GrandCouncil"); never took effect
French and Indian War
French threat at the borders was nolonger present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britai
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
Salutary Neglect
Parliament took minor actions in the colonies,allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
Townshend Act (1767
similar to Navigatio; raised money to paycolonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
Virginia Resolves
no taxation without representation,"introduced by Patrick Henry
Declaratory Act
allowed Parliament to completely legislateover the colonies, limited colonists' say
Sons of Liberty
organized and controlled resistance againstParliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom),advocated nonimportation
Suffolk Resolves
organize militia, end trade with Britain,refuse to pay taxes to Britain
Committees of Correspondence
committees appointed fromdifferent colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies
Virginia Plan
bicameral congressional representation based on population
New Jersey Plan
equal representation in unicameral congress
Jay's Treaty
provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
12th Amendment
added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots
Barbary Pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
Midnight judges
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Maine as free state, Missouri asslave state, slavery prohibited north of 36°30'
Rush-Bagot Treaty
agreement between US and Britain toremove armed fleets from the Great Lakes
Tariff of Abominations
under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff,South considered it the source of economic problems, madeJackson appear to advocate free trade
What were the five civilized tribes?
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks,Chickasaws, and Seminoles
Who invented the cooton gin?
Eli Whitney
paper money; specie circular decreed that thegovernment would not accept specie for government land
Independent Treasury Bill
government would hold itsrevenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping thefunds away from private corporations; "America's SecondDeclaration of Independence"
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
organized Seneca Falls Convention,founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
Dorothea Dix
worked towards asylums for the mentally insane,worked alongside Mann
founded by Emerson, strong emphasis onspiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strongreferences to nature
Second Great Awakening
religious movements, traveling"meetings," rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G.Finney
Horace Mann
worked to reform the American education system,abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix
Frederick Douglass
runaway slave, well-known speaker on thecondition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips,founder of The North Star
Compromise of 1850
1) California admitted as free state, (2)territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico,(3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federalassumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6)new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A.Douglas
Manifest Destiny
stated the United States was destined to spanthe breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible,advocated by Polk
Harpers Ferry (1859)
Brown aimed to create an armed slaverebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North
Kansas-Nebraska Act
territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed byStephen A. Douglas
Know-Nothing (American) Party
opposed to all immigration,strongly anti-Catholic
Anaconda plan
the Union (Northern) plan devised by General Winfield Scott to blockade the south and restrict its trade to win the war.
20-Negro Law
In 1863 this law was passed that exempted an owner or overseer of twenty or more slaves from service at war
New York City draft riots (1863)
drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned
Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
congressional law that imposed military rule on the South and demanded harsh conditions for readmission of the seceded states
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Vertical Integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
Horizontal Integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Social Gospel movement
a movement emphasizing the application of Christian principles to social problems
Chinese Exclusion Act(1882)
Bill passed by Congress in response to labor disputes that prohibited all immigration from China until 1943.
Thomas Edison
invented the electric light, phonograph, mimeograph,Dictaphone, moving pictures
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
Karl Marx
founder of modern communism
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Federal communications Commission
An agency of the federal government with authority to develop regulations for the broadcast media.
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association
provided housing and recreation to cityyouth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth
Jane Addams
helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty
Hull House
Jane Addams's pioneer settlement house (center for women's activism and social reform) in Chicago
Edward Bellamy
state-run economy to provide conflict-free society
Salvation Army
established by "General" William Booth,uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment tofamilies, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bandsin order to instill middle-class virtues
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Greenback Party
Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
Tammany Hall
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Boss Tweed
A political boss who carried corruption to new extremes, and cheated the city out of more than $100 million
Cult of domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
Triangle Shirtwaist fire
(1911) 146 women killed while locked into the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions)
Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP); Founded by W.E.B Du Bois in 1910 in order to help create more social and economic opportunities for blacks
Frederick W. Taylor
an engineer, an inventor, and a tennis player. He sought to eliminate wasted motion. Famous for scientific-management especially time-management studies.
extreme patriotism; favoring aggressive foreign policy
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Roosevelt Corollary
addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America's right to intervene in Latin American affairs
Federal Reserve Act
A 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
New Freedom
ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states' rights,more active government, trustbusting, left social issues up to thestates
Zimmerman Note
Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico. Intercepted by the US
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Wilson's 14 points
Woodrow Wilson's plan for post-war peace: no secret treaties; freedom of the seas; removal of economic barriers; reduction of arms; adjust colonial claims
Red Scare
two periods of time, in the 1920s and 1950s, in which Americans feared the growth of communism. These suspicions led to tests of the civil liberties of people under the Constitution.
Dawes Plan
The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
Harlem Renaissance
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished.
Lost Generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production through the implentation of an assembly line
Bonus Army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
First New Deal
Established to serve the "three Rs" Relief for the people out of work, Recovery for business and the economy as a whole, and Reform of American economic institutions
Second New Deal
a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs; also known as the Second Hundred Days.
1929 Stock Market Crash
Took place on October 29th, 1929. New York Stock Exchange. Caused by a near un-regulated market. Due to speculation. Sparked Great Depression in America which spread to the U.S.
Andrew Mellon
Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs
Keynesian economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
Laissez-Faire economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Yalta Conference (1945)
established world organization; Soviet Union pledged to allow democratic procedures in Eastern Europe; pledge broken, led to cold war
Japanese internment
nearly 120,000 Japanese put to live in specific areas due to fear of them being enemies
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Potsdam Conference (1945)
Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Jackie Robinson
first African American to play in Major League Baseball
Fair Deal
Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
The residential districts or suburbs outside the boundaries of a city or town. Dramatically increased in size after WW2.
The act of accusing people of disloyalty and communism
a young college-educated adult who is employed in a well-paying profession and who lives and works near a large city
CIA overthrow of Iran (1953)
installed Shah as dictator, overthrew Moussadegh (communist interests), in order to resist nationalization British oil holdings
CIA overthrow of Guatemala (1954
overthrew Pres. Guzman after he nationalized American fruit fields and accepted arms from USSR (communist sympathies)
National Aeronautics Space Agency
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960
commission on civil rights to attempt to guarantee the ballot to blacks; showed government's changing views of race relations. Lacked effective enforcement
Peace Corps
Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations
Great Society
President Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the US
Forced busing
due to parents unhappy with encouraged segregation of schools, Supreme Court instituted forced busing policies (using school buses as a method of integration)
Betty Friedan
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
Tet Offensive
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
Silent Majority
that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
New Federalism
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
9/11 Terrorist Attacks on NYC & DC (2001)
planes hijacked by terrorists for destruction; blame pinned on Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, sought out in attempt to completely destroy terrorism
Invasion of Iraq, removal of Saddam Hussein, 2003
Iran, Iraq, and North Korea designated as the "axis of evil," institution of democratic government in Iraq to replace Hussein's dictatorship(return to spread and protection of democracy throughout the world, moving beyond containment of communism)
Invasion of Afghanistan (2002)
overthrow of the Taliban in search of bin Laden
Arab Spring
revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occuring in the Arab world. Early 2010s
Alexander Hamilton
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists
a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government
Favored a weak centralized federal government
Barack Obama
Fought for universal healthcare, equal rights for homosexuals and bisexuals, killed Bin Laden. Achieved economic recovery after the 2009 recession ( stock market rose over 15% in 2013 First Quarter). Garnered tremendous public support during his 2008 campaign but his support wained during his late first term and early second term.
Tupac Shakur
Recognized by the Guiness Book of World Records as the best selling hip-hop artist ever, he is considered by many fans and music industry insiders as its greatest rapper.
hip hop movement
ral movement that attained widespread popularity in the 1980s and '90s; also, the backing music for rap, the musical style incorporating rhythmic and/or rhyming speech that became the movement's most lasting and influential art form. symbolized racial tensions and the typical urban gangster, but also provided an escape from the hardships of urban life.
rock and roll movement
rock and roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. In addition, rock and roll may have helped the cause of the civil rights movement because both African American teens and white American teens enjoyed the music. Many early rock and roll songs dealt with issues of cars, school, dating, and clothing. The lyrics of rock and roll songs described events and conflicts that most listeners could relate to from some point in their lives. Topics that were generally considered taboo, such as sex, began to be introduced in rock and roll music. This new music tried to break boundaries and express the real emotions that people were feeling, but didn't talk about. An awakening in the young American culture began to take place.
Elvis Presley
United States rock singer whose many hit records and flamboyant style greatly influenced American popular music
A famous rapper who rose to fame rapping on the roughs of his childhood. He is one of the only white rappers in the world, his reall name is Marshal mathers, in which he used to get the initals M&M, later Eminem, and then knewly called Slim Shady. Symbolized the racial boundaries that rap was able to overcome
Frank Sinatra
First to use his voice like an instrument. Teen idol of the 1940s. Nicknamed the King of Swoon
Marilyn Monroe
Female icon of the 1950s and 60s, she could sing, dance, act, and was the most infamous Playboy Bunny. Symbolized the newly borken boundaries of sexualism
Video Games
entertainment products powered by computer chips and displayed on monitors that require users to experience and interact with challenges in a series of tasks. A new form of entertainment that replaced telivision, radio, and playing outside. Debate rages if this is the cause for violent children
a communication system based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves. Revolutionary in communication and the unification of americans
Had a tremendous influence on what people in the US considered to be normal, especially during the 1950s
Bill Gates
United States computer entrepreneur whose software company made him the youngest multi-billionaire in the history of the United States
Steve Jobs
founder of Apple computers. (1976) started in a garage and in 10 years apple grew into a company of 4000 people. he got fired in 1985 and then he made Pixar Animations and got rehired into apple as CEO.
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low rent/interracial, they lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, sexual revolution, new counter culture, Protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam
The Beatles
a British band that had an enormous influence on popular music in the 1960s
1st Amendment
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
2nd Amendment
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
3rd Amendment
In times of peace, citizens do not have to quarter soldiers
Adam-Onis Treaty
spain resolve to give Florida to the US and the US gave up claims to Texas
4th Amendment
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures
5th Amendment
right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law
6th Amendment
right to a speedy and public trial. right to a fair jury. right to know what you are being accused of. right to see/hear witnesses against you. right to have a witness to help defend you. right to a lawyer.
7th Amendment
Right to a trial by jury in civil cases
8th Amendment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
9th Amemdment
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people
Charles Lindbergh
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean.
10th Amendment
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
11th Amendment
Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
16th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
20th Amendment
reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.
21st Amendment
Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment
22nd Amendment
Limits the president to two terms
23rd Amendment
Gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote
24th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
25th Amendment
Clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
26th Amendment
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Ratified in 1971.
27th Amendment
first proposed in 1789, this amendment passed in 1992 prohibits congress from raising their own pay. pay raises may not take affect until the beginning of the next term.
Teddy Roosevelt
Progressive president that believed government should be more involved in business. He was known as a trustbuster because he broke-up the monopolies.
Richard Nixon
President after Johnson, withdrew troops from Vietnam, was President when first man landed on the Moon, helped North and South Vietnam sign a peace treaty, visited China to improve relations, resigned due to Watergate
Bill Clinton
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
Abraham Lincoln
16th president of the United States; helped preserve the United States by leading the defeat of the secessionist Confederacy; an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery.
James Buchanan
the 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Dwight Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe then was elected to be Pres. of the USA
Franklin Pierce
an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Harry Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb.
Herbert Hoover
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
George W. Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
George H.W. Bush
republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation
Ronald Reagan
President, 1981-1989, who led a conservative movement against détente with the Soviet Union and the growth of the federal government; some people credit him with America's victory in the Cold War while others fault his insensitive social agenda and irresponsible fiscal policies.
Gerald Ford
1974-1977, Republican, first non elected president and VP, he pardoned Nixon
William Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Jimmy Carter
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
Lyndon Johnson
the US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Calvin Coolidge
Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased
Millard Fillmore
Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
Zach Taylor
Defeats Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista, he becomes a legend after this battle and in the future becomes president
Andrew Jackson
7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency
Grover Cleveland
1885-1889, Democrat, "Grover the Good", issue - civil service reform, tariff, monopolies, refused to annex Hawaii
James Monroe
5th President of the U.S. 1817-1825 acquired Florida from Spain; declared Monroe Doctrine to keep foreign powers out.
James Madison
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
William Pitt II
In 1783, he was elected Britain Prime Minister at the age of 24. Led Britain in the wars against France/Napoleon.
Meriweather Lewis
Jefferson's personal secretary who accompanied William Clark in 1804 to explore the northern regions of the Lousiana Purchase .
William Clark
United States explorer who (with Meriwether Lewis) led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River
Founded by Joseph Smith, who claimed he was visited by God: 1830 he published a document called "The Book of Mormon." He said it was a translation of a set of gold tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God. Also known as Latter-Day Saints
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
General Electric
Investor-created company that encouraged the spread of electricity; manufactured lightbulbs, and mainly made electricity available to more people cheaply. Also developed air brakes for trains.
Social Security Act
a 1935 law passed during the Great Depression that was intended to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans and thus save them from poverty.
George Herman Ruth
Also known as Babe Ruth, he became a celebrity with his record of hitting 60 home runs in one season lasted for more than 30 years
Ernest Hemingway
One of the most popular writers of the 1920's who wrote "A Farewell to Arms". Part of the Lost Generation
Oprah Winfrey
talk show host, philanthropist, media mogul, richest African American of the 20th century,
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
Sam Walton
the most successful discount retailer and the founder of Wal-Mart
Brigham Young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Noah Webster
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
Albert Einstein
This 20th Century scientist revolutionized the way scientists thought about space, time and matter, the most notable being his theory of relativity.
Walt Disney
Film maker, cartoonist, visionary. He developed many famous characters as well as amusement theme parks.
Wright Brothers
Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.
Mark Twain
United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910). Master of satire
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Muhammad Ali
United States prizefighter who won the world heavyweight championship three times (born in 1942)
Malcom X
spread ideas of black nationalism. disagreed w/ both the tactics and goals of the early civil rights movement. minister of the nation of isam. rejected his original name because it was his family's slave name
Hugh Hefner
Created Playboy Magazine and brought sex out of the closet. His playboy philosophy was "if it feels good and doesn't hurt anyone, do it". This man and his magazine started the loosening of American morals.
Tiger Woods
In 1997, he became the first African American to win a men's major golf championship
this magazine, first published in 1955, helped to popularize and commercialize new standards of sensuous sexuality
Ben Bernanke
chairman of the Federal Reserve System. Replaced Alan Greenspan in 2006.
Bill Cosby
In 1965 he was the first black to have a starring role in a continuing network television dramatic series.
Walter Cronkite
A newscaster who was known for his objectivity and trustworthiness, who said that the war in Vietnam would end in stalemate.
George Lucas
United States screenwriter and filmmaker, Directed "American Graffiti" and "Star Wars"
Michael Jordan
basketball player led the Chicago Bulls to an outstanding six championships in eight years
Sandra Day O'Connor
She was a laywer and later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. She was the first woman to be a justice on the Supreme Court.
Ralph Nader
Consumer rights activist who in the 60s and 70s attacked corporate Americas unsafe products. Wrote book about the auto industry called Unsafe at Any Speed. Ran multiple times for president as the Independent party candidate
Steven Spielberg
A twentieth-century American filmmaker. His popular, widely seen works range from E.T. and Raiders of the Lost Ark to Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan.
Townshend Acts
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea. Passed in 1767
First continental Congress
Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving nearly 47 million customers daily.
Henry Knox
In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secreatry of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.
Resumption Act
It pledged the withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and the redemption of all paper money in gold
Hudson River Art School
Romantic artists depicting the power of nature on a large scale, roughness, frontier, omit influence of man
Panic of 1893
Sharp economic downturn that began when the railroad industry faltered during the early 1890s followed by the collapse of many related industries