Social Psychology Chapter 11
Group Structure and Performance
Terms in this set (47)
A group's output gauged relative to something else, such as the level of resources used by the group or the group's targeted objective.
The process whereby one member influences and coordinates the behavior of other members in pursuit of group goals.
The capacity of one group member to issue orders to others - that is, to direct or regulate the behavior of other members by invoking rights that are vested in his or her role.
An attitude held by an equal or lower-status member indicating the extent to which he or she supports the group's formal leader.
Endorsement declines when...
The group repeatedly fails to achieve its goals, the leader is judged incompetent, and/or the leader demonstrates a low level of consideration toward the group members.
Support for a formal leader that comes from members having higher status in the group.
Primary function of a leader
Guide the group toward its goals. Provides guidance, specialized skills, and environmental contacts that help the group attain its goals.
Leadership based on an exchange between the leader and group members.
Fosters high levels of group productivity by conveying an extraordinary sense of mission to group members, arousing new ways of thinking within the group, and stimulating new learning by members.
Contingency model of leadership effectiveness
Group productivity is a function not only of leadership style (task orientation vs relationship orientation) but also of the situation in which a leader performs.
Elements of the contingency model
1) Leadership style (relationship oriented or task oriented).
2) The leader's personal relations with other group members (good or poor).
3) The degree of structure in the group's task (structured or unstructured).
4) The leader's position of power in the group (strong or weak).
Those who rate others with consistently negative scores. Most effective in situations that are highly favorable (good leader-member relations, structured task, strong leader power) or highly unfavorable.
Those who give both positive and negative ratings to others. Care about establishing congenial interpersonal relations. Most effective in situations that are of medium favorableness.
Productivity and performance
When tasks can be divided up so that some individuals can specialize, the increased level of efficiency makes the group more than the sum of its parts. Having too many individuals involved can hinder performance though.
A phenomenon in which the mere presence of other individuals causes persons to perform better (if the task is simple or one that the individuals are accomplished in performing). If the task is difficult or unfamiliar, the opposite effect may occur.
Generate an action oriented plan to achieve objectives on which the members agree.
Tasks that require a group to generate new, original ideas.
Tasks that require a group to solve a problem for which there is a correct answer.
Decision making tasks
Tasks that require a group to solve a problem for which there is no inherently right answer.
Cognitive conflict tasks
Tasks in which group members hold varying viewpoints and strive to resolve differences.
Mixed motive tasks
Tasks in which group members face an underlying conflict of interest with respect to conditions for reward.
Tasks in which group members compete as a unit against an external opponent or enemy.
Tasks that require group members to use manual skills to bring about great results.
Contribution of group members declines as the group's size increases (as seen in the rope-pulling task).
A form of motivation loss that occurs when there is no clear way to know how much individual members are contributing to the group product. Individuals are less likely to engage in it when they strongly value the group and their membership in it.
A circumstance where group members reduce their effort and slack off, thereby producing less than they otherwise would.
Tasks that are divisible; they can be broken into subtasks so that each member can contribute meaningfully to the group's outcome.
Tasks in which the group's output depends solely on its strongest or most able member.
Tasks in which the group's productivity depends on its weakest member.
If a task is disjunctive, productivity will increase with group size, but if a task is conjunctive, increasing group size will decrease productivity. A larger group is more likely to have very strong and very weak group members.
Group goal effect
If a group establishes explicit, demanding objectives with respect to the group's performance, and if the group's members are highly committed to those objectives, then the group will perform at a higher level than if it does not do these things.
Distributive justice principles
Criteria that group members use to judge the fairness of the distribution of rewards.
Rewards are distributed equally regardless of contributions.
Rewards are distributed in proportion to members' contributions.
Relative needs principle
Rewards are distributed according to personal needs, regardless of contributions.
The more the outcome depends on the contributions from every member of the group, the greater the TI. When task interdependence is high, unequal rewards may cause some members to feel that smaller rewards are not fair. Higher levels of differential rewards reduce group productivity when TI is high.
Responses to underreward
People typically become dissatisfied or angry. The greater the degree of underreward, the greater their dissatisfaction and desire to reestablish equity.
Responses to overreward
Creates feelings of inequity, often in the form of guilt rather than anger. A person who feels guilty may attempt to rectify the inequity.
A procedure intended to generate a large number of high-quality, novel ideas in a brief period. Based on the principles that members should freely express any idea that comes to mind, withhold criticism and defer judgment until later, try to generate as many ideas as possible, and build on ideas suggested by others.
Occurs when members of a brainstorming group are unable to express their ideas due to turn taking among group members. They wait for others to stop speaking before they voice their own idea and have to concentrate on remembering their ideas while others are speaking.
A faulty mode of thinking by group members in which their desire to realistically evaluate alternative courses of action is overwhelmed by pressures for unanimity within the group.
Symptoms of groupthink
Illusions of invulnerability, illusions of morality, collective rationalization, stereotyping the adversary, self-censorship, pressure on dissenters, mind guarding, and apparent unanimity.
Members who protect against information that might shatter complacency about the group's morality and effectiveness.
Despite personal doubts, members may share an illusion that unanimity exists in the group.
The tendency to advocate more risk following a group discussion.
The move away from risk following a group decision. Occurs on issues when members are cautious and group discussion actually causes members to become even more cautious than they were initially.
Occurs when group members shift their opinions toward a position that is similar to but more extreme than their opinions before the group discussion.