Civil War/Reconstruction Exam 1 Study Guide

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Robert E Lee
- Offered command of Union army by Winfield Scott who had health issues and was too overweight to mount a horse -"the very finest soldier I've ever seen"
- Didn't approve of secession, but also wouldn't take up arms against his home state of Virginia
Ulyssess Grant
- Obscure figure at start of the war
- West point graduate ( though not high ranking like Mclellan)
- Drunk and broke before the war
- Shows his genius early on as an officer of a volunteer regime in Illinois --> moves headquarters to Cairo on the border of Kentucky (an important border state)
Albert Sidney Johnston
...
Missouri Compromise
- Louisiana Purchase in 1803 was a major source of contention, raised question of whether slavery would be allowed in the new territory
- In an attempt to maintain the balance of free/slave states(which were even) the following legislation was passed in 1820:
- Maine was admitted as a free state
- Missouri was admitted as a slave state
- Slavery would not be allowed in the rest of the Louisianna Purchase north of the 36 30 line.
Slavery Issue Pre Civil War
- At time of US founding, both North and South saw slavery as morally evil but couldn't agree on what to do with it ---> assumed slavery was on the road to abolition when Constitution was written
- Invention of cotton gin aided an intellectual shift on slavery in south ---> people & leading figures starting to think of slavery as a positive practice, not a moral evil
- In the North, evangelical wave causes people to really focus on social issues
- Uncle Toms Cabin also influences attitudes in the North about slavery
- Annexation of Texas and territory gained in the Mexican War exasperates slavery issues (would they be slave or free states?)
- Compromise of 1850 is outcome
Compromise of 1850
-culmination of political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
- CA admitted as free state (but that doesn't necessarily mean its elected officials would hold antislavery views)
- Slave trade banned in DC
- Fugitive Slave Act enacted requiring that escaped slaves were to be returned to their masters and that free states had to cooperate in this law (though this was a major contradiction of states rights, imposing on the Northern states)
- Calmed the slavery issue (at least temporarily), and keeps the union together another day
Stephen Douglas
- Democratic Illinois senator that designed the Kansas Nebraska Act
- Participated in Lincoln-Douglas debates, debating slavery in great detail --> beat Lincoln in senator raise but Lincoln's performance helped him beat Douglas a few years later for President
- Believed in popular sovereignty in relation to slavery - states could decide if they wanted slavery or not
Kansas Nebraska Act (1854)
- Created the separate territories of Kansas and Nebraska
- Drafted by Stephen Douglas
- Included popular sovereignty clause, the power to decide for or against slavery was transferred from congress to the people of the territory (which overturned the Missouri Compromise's use of latitude as the boundary between slave and free territory)
- Sparked outrage that leads to bleeding Kansas, yet another indicator that the slavery issue was not going to be resolved easily or peacefully (civil war foreshadow)
- Kansas will enter the Union as a free state)
Bleeding Kansas 1854-1861
- Following Kansas Nebraska Act in 1854, northerners and southerners flood to Kansas to vote on the status of the new territory
- Violent outbursts occur between pro and anti slavery groups as the rival parties fight to establish government
- Pierce and Buchanan administrations recognized the pro slavery government
- John Brown (of Harpers Ferry notoriety) led attacks on pro slavery residents
- Kansas will eventually enter as free state in 1861
Charles Sumner
- Radical republican MA senator that delivers "Crime Against Kansas Speech" in wake of bleeding Kansas
- advocate of abolition and civil rights
- Attacked by SC congressman Preston Brooks with a cane in the senate chambers
- Another example of how divisive politics were during this period, again foreshadowing the full on civil war to come
James Buchanan
- Democrat who wins election of 1856, northerner with southern sympathies which pleases South
- Buchanan assures the nation that the Supreme Court will make a decision on slavery soon which reassures people (Dred Scott ruling emerges, no African American, free or slave, was a citizen)
- Northerners now unhappy and distrusting of Buchanan
- Buchanan supported the idea that territories have a right to determine if they would allow slavery or not (popular sovereignty)
- Supported the pro slavery government during the Bleeding Kansas events
- Before passing on presidency to Lincoln, Buchanan said he believed the South's secession wasn't legal, but the federal government didn't have the power to stop it
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry (October 1859)
-effort by armed abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a US arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
- Robert E. Lee was in command of the operation to retake the arsenal
- Increased tensions further bc southerners
Lincoln's Cooper Union Speech (February 1860)
- Delivered in February of 1860 before Lincoln had even won the republican nomination (would occur in May)
- elaborated his views on slavery that he did not wish it to be expanded into the western territories and cites research that the Founding Fathers would agree with this position (research shows founding fathers had intended Congress to regulate slavery, contrary to Roger Taney's implications)
- Resonates widely and is considered a highly successful speech that propels him into political prominence (had previously been relatively unknown outside of IL), many regard it as a reason for his presidential victory in a few months
John Fremont
- Republican who opposed James Buchanan in election of 1856 republican
- stark abolitionist
- Appointed by Lincoln as major general of Department of the West
-Following first confiscation act, Fremont issues proclamation in August 1861 declaring marital law, death penalty for guerrillas, and freeing all slaves in Missouri
- removed from command of Department of the West when he refuses to modify the proclamation, Lincoln cared more about keeping Missouri in the Union at this point
Fremont Proclamation predicament
- For President Lincoln the proclamation created a difficult situation, as he tried to balance the agendas of Radical Republicans who favored abolition, and slave-holding Unionists in the American border states whose support was essential in keeping the states of Missouri, Kentucky and Maryland
Thaddeus Stevens
- Radical republican representative and abolitionist
- One of the people that thought Lincoln was moving too slow on the slavery issue
- Unhappy with Lincoln's remove of Fremont, called for relentless war against the South and freedom for all slaves
John Breckinridge
- Buchanan's vice president
- confederate commander
- briefly served as Confederate Secretary of War in 1865
- commanded at Shiloh
Election of 1860
- Stephen Douglas was favorite to win Democratic nomination, but didn't want to include "slave plank" (allowing slavery in any new territories)
-Southern delegates threatened to walk out of democratic convention if Douglas didn't include slave plank, he doesn't, so Douglas doesn't isn't nominated alone
- Democratic party is shattered when they can't nominate a candidate ----> Breaks in to northern and southern factions
- Northern democratic faction = Stephen Douglass
- Southern democratic faction = John Breckenridge
- Constitutional Union faction (southern democratic origins) = John Bell
- William Seward favored for Republican nomination, outspoken anti slavery advocate but caused alarm when he called slavery an "irrepressible conflict", Salmon chase also runs
- Lincoln beats Seward for Republican nomination bc he's seen as less radical
- Comes down to Lincoln vs Douglas in North, and Breckinridge vs Bell in South
- Because of divide in democratic party, Lincoln wins (though he doesn't win the popular vote)
William Seward
- Competed with Lincoln for republican nomination in 1860 election
- Anti slavery republican, goes on to become Lincoln's Secretary of State
- His main task during the war was keeping European powers from intervening or recognizing the south
- Asserted that the Union only wanted good relations with Europe, but that they would not hesitate to prosecute a war agains them if deemed necessary to preserve the Union
- Major test of his position came during the Trent Affair, when he successfully calms British tensions by returning the two captured men
- Seward largely responsible for keeping Britain from recognizing the Confederacy
Salmon Chase
- attempted to run for president in 1860 but lost the Republican nomination to Lincoln
- Anti slavery republican
- Served as Secretary of Treasury under Lincoln, managed Union financials during the Civil War
- Lincoln nominated Chase to fill the Supreme Court vacancy that arose following Chief Justice Roger Taney's death ---> replaces Taney
The Trent Affair
- November 1861 a U.S. Navy Officer captured two Confederate officials aboard the British mail ship, the Trent (aka a neutral ship)
- Great Britain accused the United States of violating British neutrality
-incident created a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Great Britain
- Lincoln stands by fighting "one war at a time," and he and Seward release the prisoners
- Almost Led to Great Britain recognizing the Confederacy which could have dramatically changed the nature of the war
James Mason and John Slidell
- Two confederate diplomats who were captured by Union officers aboard a British ship during the Trent Affair
- The two had been traveling to London to attempt talks regarding Britain recognizing the Confederacy
- Replaced Yancey and Rost as representatives to engage with London regarding recognition of the Confederacy
House Committee of Thirty Three
- Formed after election of Lincoln to try and figure out how to keep southern states from seceding
- Every idea they came up with made far more concessions to the south but Lincoln did not want to concede too much to the South
- By the time a proposal is reached, 4 states had already seceded
The Secession Crisis
- Already ripe with thoughts of secession, the election of Lincoln in 1860 serves as a catalyst for southern states to move forward with seceding
- Despite Lincoln's insistence that he had no intention of upsetting the slavery institution in states where it already existed
- SC first to secede under unanimous vote in December of 1960, 6 more states follow before Lincoln is even inaugurated in March of 1861
- Many southerners believed the North wouldn't fight
- Buchanan does nothing to stop the crisis, said he believed the South's secession was NOT legal, but the federal government didn't have the power to stop it
- Issue of Federal property in seceded states becomes major issue leading up to war --> Ft. Sumter
- In February 1861, the south meets to elect Jefferson Davis as president and write constitution (almost the exact same as the Union's except it explicitly allows slavery)
Ft. Sumter
- To Jefferson Davis' despair, Lincoln stands by his assertion of maintaining federal property in the south
- In April 1861, Lincoln sends notice to South Carolina governor that he was going to resupply Ft Sumter, but only with essentials, not troops or weapons
- Davis decides after consultations that lack of action could revive southern unionism, decides to demand the surrender of the fort
- Union commander Robert Anderson refuses demand, and Confederate general Beauregard bombards the fort for 33 hours, forcing Anderson to surrender and igniting the war
Cornerstone Speech
- Speech made my Alexander Stephens, democrat and vice president of the confederacy
- cornerstone of the south = slavery
- asserts that disagreements of slavery was the immediate cause of secession
P.G.T Beauregard
- commanded the defenses of Charleston, South Carolina, at the start of the Civil War at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861
-won the First Battle of Bull Run near Manassas, Virginia.
- commanded armies in the Western Theater, including at the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee, and the Siege of Corinth in northern Mississippi.
Robert Anderson
- Union commander at Ft. Sumter
Consequences of Fort Sumter
- The confederate effort to win control over federal outposts in the South turns secession into a full on civil war
- Has a rallying effect in the north (similar to post Pearl Harbor/9/11)
- Makes South look like the antagonizers
- Lincoln calls for 75,000 temporary volunteers to enforce the US laws, which Davis views as an act of war, calling for his own volunteers, and compels 4 more southern states to secede
Why Confederate soldiers fought
- Many saw their rights being threatened, in addition to having pro slavery attitudes
- Saw Northern Yankees as invaders of their land, defending their home
- Sense of adventure (young people weren't well traveled at the time bc of poor transportation, so this was a new opportunity)
- Expectation/honor
Why Union soldiers fought
- Preservation of the union (most were anti slavery but cared more about preserving their sacred Union)
- Many didn't believe in ownership of another human
- Slavery offended their value of labor
Soldier demographics
- Soliders at the beginning of the war were volunteers, but the draft would be instituted on both sides later
- Both sides made of pretty poor individuals (Substitution contributed to this demographic --> wealthy people pay to have a substitute)
- Typically young white males, many still lived with their parents
- Union army had significant portion of immigrants (27%) while confederacy had little
Southern Advantages at wars start
- Myth of lost cause sprang up quickly, but wasn't necessarily that way from the start:
- Superior military leadership (Lee, Johnston, Beauregard) and a larger militarily skilled/trained population
- South is geographically much larger
- South has interior lines which North had to invaded and hold
- North would be in enemy territory --> south has home field advantage
- North held little territory in the south prior to the war
- South had railroads in their territory that was being invaded
- Able to mobilize unheard of portions of their population bc slaves could keep the economy going (though North still had a population advantage)
- Possibly greater motivation for some
Northern advantages at wars start
- Union had a greater population (which means more troops but also more workers to maintain the war time economy)
- Industrial strength, greatly outnumbered the south in terms of factories and industries
- The North had far more rail lines
- But, the north suffered from weak military leadership
How could the south have defeated the north with these advantages at the beginning?
- Politically could have outmaneuvered them (had Mclellan beat Lincoln the South would be an independent nation bc his platform was peace with the south)
- Diplomatically: Getting Britain or other nations to recognize them as a legitimate independent nation
Anaconda Plan
- Winfield Scotts military plan for the Union
- Called for union blockade of southern ports and controlling the Mississippi to cut off and isolate the south
- Plan was to constrict the South economically as well as militarily (blockade would interfere with the export of cotton as well as the import of weapons)
- Although the plan was not officially adopted, Lincoln followed it as a rough plan throughout the war
Winfield Scott
...
Cordon Defense
- Jefferson Davis' military plan for the confederacy
- Plan was to maintain the entire geography of the confederate territories
- Politically motivated as well, failure to protect all states would be unacceptable, had to established themselves as a nation (and also protect slavery)
- However, under this plan forces were too dispersed over the vast territory and constant defense was impossible to maintain
- Ulysess Grant will be one of the first to test this strategy
Fredrick Douglass
- escaped slave
-Advocated for the use of free African American men against the south, pushes to allow blacks to serve
- urged North to allow formation of African American regiments
- knew this wouldn't help just end the war, but also help African Americans leverage rights after the war (i.e citizenship)
States that seceded before Fort Sumter
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas
States that seceded after Fort Sumter
Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee
Border States that didn't secede (still slave states tho)
Deleware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri
The Baltimore Mob
- secessionist mob that attacks Union troops passing through
- riot in baltimore that resulted in the first bloodshed of the civil war, april 19 1861 (about a week after civil war started)
- As MA militia is traveling through Baltimore en route to Washington, a mob of southern sympathizers and anti war supporters attacked their train
- Militia fires on civilians in response
- As a result, MD officials demand that no more federal troops be transported through the state ---> these tensions will remain high and lead to the bridge burning and tampering activities that will lead Lincoln to suspend Habeas Corpus
- MD a border state that allowed slavery and had strong southern sympathies but never seceded
Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus
- Tensions are high in MD following the Baltimore mob incident
- John Merryman, a legislator from the state, is accused of burning bridges towards Washington and hindering the movement of Union troops
- Lincoln suspends habeas corpus in name of public safety which causes controversy over the constitutionality of this action
- Chief Justice Roger Taney denies Lincoln right to suspend habeas corpus, saying this power lies with Congress not the president----> Lincoln essentially ignores
Edward Bates
- Attorney General under Lincoln during the civil war
Roger Taney
-Delivered majority opinion of Dred Scott case (African Americans, free or slave, were not citizens)
- From slaveholding family in MD, democrat
- Rules Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus unconstitutional (though Lincoln pretty much ignores)
First Bull Run/Manassas
- Took place in July 1861
- First sign that this wasn't going to be a quick war
- Union General Irvin McDowell was under considerable political pressure to march his inexperienced army into battle, sets up a plan to attack the Confederate force at Bull Run/Manassas
- Confederate forces in Beauregard's command were guarding the vital railroad junction of Manassas in Virginia. Securing this key junction would also give the Union forces better access to Richmond
- Confederates forced attacked and forced to fight on the defensive most of the day
- Reinforcements under Joseph Johnston and Tomas Jackson (who earns his nickname Stonewall in this battle) arrive and confederates launch a successful counterattack to win the battle
Benjamin Butler
- General in Union Army (first to declare slaves "contraband")
- Met with 3 african american men at Fort Monroe who said they escaped from the south --> refuses to return them to their owner, keeps them as "contraband of war" and effectively turned the southern ideal of slaves as property against them
- Butler came up with this logic on the fly and doesn't know if it will be held up by law, but a short while later congress would pass the first confiscation act to keep a consistent policy towards slaves
First Confiscation Act
- Passed by congress and signed by Lincoln in July 1861
- "An act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes" including slaves - basically Union could seize rebel property
- Not an explicit freedom statue but authorized Union army officials to seize slaves that were employed by the confederate army or that reached union lines
- Lincoln was hesitant to sign this bc he didn't want to give border states anymore reason to want to secede (slave states that were still loyal to the union)
Contrabands
-commonly used to describe escaped slaves
- The Army (and the United States Congress) determined that the US would not return escaped slaves who went to Union lines and classified them as contraband
Simon Cameron
- Secretary of War at beginning of Civil War, sent to become minister of Russia and replaced but Edwin Stanton
- Allowed slaves who reached Union lines to be held as contraband even if they came from households loyal to the Union (aka border states)
George Mclellan
- high ranking west point grad that served under Winfield Scott and rose quickly through the ranks
- Completely transforms the Union army as general in chief, instills discipline and confidence in troops
- Characterized by his huge ego, critique of superiors, over stepping of bounds, hesitance, and inability to accurately assess size of opponents
Edwin Stanton
- By November 1861, Lincoln believed that Simon Cameron needed to be replaced as secretary of war
- Despite Stanton being a prior critic of Lincoln, he is appointed and successfully turns the war department around
- Was an advocate for Lincolns suspension of habeas corpus
Balls Bluff
- Second major engagement of the civil war, October 1861
- humiliating defeat for the Union who had wanted to capture nearby Leesburg bc it was an important transportation hub
- Because of false intelligence (an issue that would plague Mclellan throughout his civil war tenure) Union soldiers are backed in to the Potomac and embarrassingly defeated
- Committee on Conduct of War created in wake of this loss headed by Benjamin Wade, radical republican
General War Order No. 1
- Issued in January 1862 in an effort to push Mclellan to advance
- Mclellan still refusing to tell Lincoln his plans at this point, Lincoln orders all naval and land units to advance on Confederate insurgents by February 22
- Lincoln still doesn't push Mclellan though, and instead of acting Mclellan outlines what would be known as his "Urbana Plan" to Lincoln
Urbana Plan
-Initial offensive plan of the Peninsula Campaign proposed by Mclellan to ship the army (100,000 strong) from the Potomac River to Urbana, where the Union army would be able to march to Richmond virtually unopposed.
-Joseph Johnston at Manassas would be too far away to intervene effectively before the fall of the Confederate capital
- Before this could be put in to motion, Confederate general Joseph Johnston moves his troops from Manassas, making this plan unfeasible
Peninsula Campaign
- Union operation headed by Mclellan from April to July 1862
- Goal was to capture Richmond, Va., by way of the peninsula between the York and James rivers
- With Johnston foiling the initial plan to land at Urbana , the new plan is transporting the Army of the Potomac by sea to Fort Monroe
-Having bypassed those defences, the army would be able to advance quickly against Richmond without having to face an entrenched opponent
Peninsula campaign timeline
- Beginning of April, Mclellan and army arrive at Fort Monroe and begin advance on Yorktown
- Confederate Commander Magruder at Yorktown tricks Mclellan in to thinking his army was much larger than it was (a common theme for Mclellan, overestimating his opponents)
- Mclellan chooses to besiege the town (for most of April 1862) rather than attack and Confederates end up retreating (beginning of May) before Mclellan even begins his bombardment
- Joseph Johnston, who took command of McGruder's forces at Yorktown, continues retreating as Mclellan continues advancing
- Norfolk, the souths best shipyard, is abandoned after Lincoln orders a naval bombardment and the USS Virginia scuttled
- The forces meat again when Confederates attack federal forces at Fair Oaks (Seven Pines) and Johnston is wounded, leading him to be replaced by Robert E Lee
- While Mclellan is still hesitating and demanding more troops, Lee is planning a counteroffensive
- Lee launches counter offensive, striking Mclellan hard and fast and forcing the Union retreat from Richmond over the course of the Seven Days Battle
The Virginia and the Monitor
-The confederate USS Virginia arrives at Hampton Roads a few weeks prior to the peninsula campaign and destroys two Union ships, threatening the entire offense ---> The Union USS Monitor arrives shortly after and the two ships engage, but result in a draw
- First battle of two ironclad ships
- March 1862
Yorktown
- Marching from Fort Monroe during Peninsula Campaign, McClellan's army encounters Magruder's small Confederate army at Yorktown -- Magruder's theatrics convinced the Federals that his works were strongly held
-McClellan suspended the march up the Peninsula toward Richmond and ordered the construction of siege fortifications
- In the meantime, Johnston brought reinforcements for Magruder
- By the time Mclellan plans to bombard, the confederate army as slipped away
- April through May 1862
Seven Days Battle
- While Mclellan was still being too cautious in his advances during the Peninsula Campaign, Lee initiates a tenacious counter offensive
- Sends J.E.B Stuart to scout Federal right flank, who proceeds to take his 1200 horsemen on daring ride around entirety of Union army, causing them much embarrassment
- Lee launches a series of attacks on the Union army, forcing them to retreat despite technically losing all but one of the 6 battles
- Mclellan is pushed back to James River
- Late June/Early July 1862
Malvern Hill
- Last of the Seven Days Battle
- Poorly executed attack by confederate forces under Lee, not helped by the sloped landscape the Union was defending
- Despite a Union victory, Lee and his army had successfully pushed Mclellan into retreat and the peninsula campaign ends
Consequences of Peninsula Campaign
- Robert E Lee takes command of Army of Northern VA and his aggressiveness destroys Mclellan
- Prolongs the war --> North had a chance to destroy the confederacy, but they survived and are now under the command of a skilled leader
- Historically, this is the last point in which the south could have been defeated and brought back in to the Union with Slavery still in tact (Lincoln's views begin to shift at this point and we see him no longer conceding to the institution of slavery)
Henry Halleck
- Appointed general in chief of the Union forces following the failure of peninsula campaign and removal of Mclellan
- Cautious and controlling general, which would lead his subordinates to achieving more credit and accomplishing more than him (Grant and Buell) - Fort Donelson and Shiloh
- earned criticism for allowing Confederate forces under Beauregard to pull out of Corinth, Mississippi - another missed opportunity thanks to inadequate Union leadership
Leonidas Polk
- Confederate general appointed by Davis despite lack of military experience
- violates Kentucky's neutrality
- Orders the occupation of Columbus, Kentucky in September of 1861 which will lead the critical border state to declare for the Union
Kentucky's Neutrality
- Kentucky is a border state that declared neutrality, but slightly favored the south only bc Davis recognizes their neutrality while Lincoln does not
- Kentucky important to both the North and the South bc it possessed to critical rivers and railroads
- Following occupation of Columbus by confederate officer Polk, Grant seized Paducah, Kentucky, a major transportation hub of rail and river access
- Kentucky forced to take a side, declares for the Union since South invaded first
- With neutrality broken, both sides move to take advantageous positions and we see the taking of Fort Henry and Donelson ensue
Fort Henry and Fort Donelson (Feb 1862)
- In January 1862, Halleck authorizes Grant to take Fort Henry (TN)
- In early February, Grant takes Fort Henry with relative ease --> majority of forces are evacuated to Fort Donelson shortly after Union bombardment and Confederate commander surrenders
- Grant moves onward to Fort Donelson, despite not having authorization from Halleck
- With the two top ranking officials leave the lower ranking Buckner in charge as they leave, Buckner is unable to move and must surrender to Grant
- "immediate and unconditional surrender" are Grant's famous terms and these are the first decisive Union victories of the war
Battle of Shiloh (April 1862)
- Despite Halleck's call for Grant's removal following Fort Donelson, Grant is not removed and moves onward through TN towards Pittsburg Landing (TN)
- Grant is caught off guard by Confederate forces under Albert Sidney Johnston who launched an offensive before Buell could arrive with reinforcements for the Union
- Union suffers massive losses the first day but Grant refuses to surrender
- A.S Johnston is killed on the first day and replaced by the less talent Beauregard
- Northern reinforcements from Don Carlos Buell arrive during the night, providing Union forces with over 20,000 more fresh troops and Grant launches a successful counteroffensive the next day ensuring Union victory
- both sides suffered massive losses and Grant is criticized for being caught off guard
- this bloody battle horrifies both the North and South
James Ashley
- radical republican congressman from OH; abolitionist
- blamed nations problems on salve barons and dough faces
- Vocal advocate of the passage of a constitutional amendment that outlawed the "crime of American slavery" as far back as 1856
- As a child, saw slaves in chains and made it his life goal to end it
- Well known to assist fugitive slaves
- by 1861, he had been elected twice to congress
- Like many abolitionists, believed that slavery was the fundamental cause of the war
Doughfaces
Northerns with southern sympathies
Lucretia Mott
- Abolitionist/feminist woman who spent her life advocating for suffrage and abolition
- Quaker who considered slavery evil
- Called Seneca Falls Convention along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who she met at the amous World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840
- Critical of the Republican party for moving too slow and prioritizing the preservation of the union over abolition
- Being a quaker, she didn't want to go to war, but rather wanted to simply let the south go (believing it wouldn't be able to survive alone and thus neither would slavery)
- Disapproved of political parties and Lincoln as well, didn't believe Lincoln or Republican party went far enough or fast enough
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
- Born in to an upperclass, slave holding family in SC
- Believed slavery was wrong, moved north and wrote and spoke out against slavery
- Had credibility that other abolitionists did not bc of their first hand experience with slavery
- abolitionists and feminists
Clara Barton
- outspoken abolitionist
- founder of American Red Cross
- Another example of the civil war opening doors for women as advocates, writers, nurses, etc
Harriet Beecher Stowe
- Author of Uncle Toms Cabin 1852 (fictional depiction of slavery that rallied support for abolition or atleast dislike for slavery)
- Another example women galvanizing support during this era
Compensated Emancipation
- Proposal by Lincoln to buy out slaves (he had concluded that the continued cost of the war would outreach that of buying out the slaves)
- Offers this to Delaware in November of 1861 but is rejected
- Offers gradual compensated emancipation to border states and is rejected
- Lincoln believed this would ensure the border slave states would have nothing to gain by joining the Confederacy --> another attempt to persevere union and prevent border states from seceding
- Compensated emancipation doesn't catch on but in April of 1862 Lincoln does sign legislation that ends slavery in DC
Second Confiscation Act
- Signed in july 1862
- Any rebel convicted of treason after the war would lose their slave property
European intervention in Civil War
- The Confederates wrongly assumed that "cotton is king"—that is, Britain had to support the Confederacy to obtain cotton (when in fact they had plenty stocked up)
- British working class didn't like slavery, nor did the growing British middle class
- Trent Affair was closest Britain came to recognizing the confederacy
Gideon Welles
- United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869
- Although opposed to the Union blockade of Southern ports, he duly carried out his part of the Anaconda Plan, largely sealing off the Confederate coastline and preventing the exchange of cotton for war supplies
- This is viewed as a major cause of Union victory in the Civil War
New Orleans
- largest city in the Southern states during the war
- New Orleans occupied a strategic location for the South as they were able to send troops and support up the Mississippi River
-Confederate strategists believed that an attack would come from down the Mississippi, not from the Gulf of Mexico
- During night time in April 1862, Union officer David Farragut able to lead naval forces past the only two defending forts
-Once this passage of the forts was complete, New Orleans was unable to provide much resistance
-Troops and ships had been moved by the Confederacy up the Mississippi to northern Mississippi to stop the Union from invading down the river.
-Farragut was able to lead his squadron on up the Mississippi River to demand the surrender
- Benjamin Butler will occupy New Orleans
Stephen Mallory
- Confederate Secretary of Navy
David G. Farragut.
- Union general who successfully takes New Orealsn