Geography Final Exam Lecture Terms
Terms in this set (52)
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Area encircling the earth near the equator where the northeast and southeast trade winds come together
Population concentration in Australia
Region is sparsely populated (relative to most of SE Asia).
91% of Australia's population is along the eastern/southeastern coastline.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
Forum of 21 Pacific Rim countries that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation amongst member economies.
1. Trade and Investment Liberalization
2. Business Facilitation
3. Economic and Technical Cooperation
Regional environmental stresses
AUS, PNG, Nauru
Heavy metals contamination
Open pit mines
AUS: Eucalyptus woodlands destroyed for pasture
PNG: 37 million acres (1/3rd of country)
Climate Change: Bushfires
Common due to dry, hot climate
Strong La Niña year, wetter conditions à abundant grass growth
2012-2013: AUS experiences intense wildfire seasons:
Drought patterns potentially linked to climate change
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
Aims to provide comprehensive scientific assessments of current scientific, technical and socio-economic information worldwide about the risk of climate change caused by human activity
The case of Kiribati
Island nation of 103,000
Total area: 313 sq miles (811 sq km)
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) estimates 50cm rise in Pacific by 2100.
A specific colonial formation whereby foreign family units move into a region and reproduce.
A mode of social management that emerges in the 18th century, in Europe. The set of practices through which modern states regulate citizens through "an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations."
Simply put: A form of political power exercised on whole populations in every aspect of human life.
The applied science or the bio-social movement which advocates the use of practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population.
White Australia Policy
Various historical policies that intentionally restricted non-white immigration to Australia from 1901 to 1973.
Aborigines Act 1911
Gave the colony of Victoria powers over Aboriginal and 'half-caste' persons, including the forcible removal of children, especially 'at risk' girls.
"The Stolen Generation"
The forced removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families from 1909 to 1969.
Official reasons were to place mixed race children of Aboriginal descent into re-socialization programs in an attempt to minimize the genetic transfer of racial and social characteristics.
Foundations in Biopolitics and Eugenics
Operated by subsidiary of UK-based Rio Tinto - Zinc
Immediate environmental damage (600 acres of rainforest severely degraded)
Significant ecosystem damage over 22 years of the mine's operation.
Rio Tinto Zinc
Bougainville Revolutionary Army
Long term resistance/guerilla warfare against RTZ and PNG.
El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
A quasi-periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean about every 5 years.
Physiological Distribution in South Asia
Indus and Ganges plains
Agricultural techniques used in developing countries that involve new, genetically modified seeds with high yield outputs, combined with high inputs of fertilizers, irrigation techniques, and pesticides.
International Poverty Line
Positives of the Green Revolution
- Credited with saving over a billion people from starvation. (Higher yields to match increasing populations)
- Increasing food security on a global scale. (More ecologically resilient crops)
- Assisted in the spread of agricultural technologies. (Fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides
- Irrigation practices (Machinery technologies/Time-saving practices)
- Marketization of Agriculture (Global market dynamic
- Generation of wealth for farmers, ag. regions, nations.)
Criticisms of the Green Revolution
- Marketization (Risks associated with market-enforced deregulations
- Farmers more subject to market fluctuations (Crops more subject to global food price fluctuations)
- Corporate Influence (Corporations have greater powers in determining the agricultural policies and practices of farms/regions/nations.)
- Secondary Environmental Costs (Pesticide, herbicides, fertilizers a Environmental risk (Increased agricultural activity an Increased water usage)
- Large scale agricultural practice à Decreases in regional biodiversity)
Accumulated knowledge, passed down through successive generations
Not individually owned, but collectively held
Scientific research that looks for a useful application, process, or product in nature.
Involves processes of discovery and commercialization of new products based in biological resources, typically in less-developed countries.
Property (as an idea, invention, or process) that derives from the work of the mind or intellect. (Merriam-Webster)
Divided into 2 categories:
1) Copyright (literary and artistic works)
2) Industrial property (inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, patents)
The commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials, such as plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a technologically advanced country or organization without fair compensation to the peoples or nations in whose territory the materials were originally discovered.
The Case of Neem
- Azadirachta indica
Tree native to South Asia
Source of Neem Oil
Anthelmintic, antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, contraceptive and sedative
- 1995: USDA and US pharmaceutical firm receive patent on extraction technique of neem oil.
- Indians concerned it would be extended to the properties of the tree itself.
- Indian gov't submits a legal challenge
- Pharmaceutical company claims traditional Indian knowledge of the properties of neem tree had never been published in an academic journal, and thus did not amount to "prior art."
- Greater outcry and on May 10, 2000, the patent is revoked.
Effects of the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunami
Created several tsunamis, some as high as 30m (98ft).
Total death toll: 230,000 (est.)
Estimate of climate-change related island inundation by mid-2000s
2,100 islands by mid-2000s.
Primary cause of regional deforestation
Heavy commercial logging due to global market demand
Reasons for high RNI in the Philippines
Catholicism and birth control.
Geopolitical and economic organization comprised of 10 SEA countries (all but East Timor)
An anti-communist foreign policy theory that used the idea of the domino effect to suggest that if one country "fell" to communism, others in the neighboring region would also fall.
•Khmer Rouge ("Red Cambodians")
Pol Pot (1963-1998)
A left-wing extremist government (1975-1979)
Regarded as the deadliest regime of the 20th century.
Aspects of Khmer Rouge's social engineering policies
- To establish ideal communist society, KR had to purge country of 'corrupting influences'.
- Forced population transfers to agricultural collectives, where people had to work 12 hour days.
- Led to famine since many people who were forced to farm had no agricultural knowledge.
- Modern medicines restricted (more death).
- Targeted execution of select groups who posed threat to the new state.
Aspects of Khmer Rouge's family policy
Parents (middle age demographic) were compromised by capitalism, so children were separated from parents.
Tuol Sleng Detention Centre (S-21)
- Site of brutal and systemic torture of thousands of people
- Of the 17,000 passed through its gates between 1975 and 1979, only 12 survived.
- Estimate death toll under Khmer Rouge
- Number of deaths: est. between 1.4 and 2.2 million.
Name 4 major environmental issues facing the region.
Riverine and Coastal Pollution
China's "One Child Policy"
- Officially restricts married, urban couples to having only one child.
- Allows exemptions for several cases, including twins, rural couples, ethnic minorities, and parents without any siblings themselves.
China's farm output ranking
#1 in farm output ($737 billion)
Reasons for high agricultural import activity in Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan.
Due to population/urban demands
China's economic trends for the last 30 years
Fastest growing economy, with 10% growth rates over last 30 years.
- Quasi-periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean about every 5 years.
- Variations in the surface temperature of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, and in the air pressure of the tropical western Pacific.
"The Great Famine"
Famine covered 257,000 sq. miles
Estimated death toll: 8.2 million
Collapse of agricultural systems...
Malnutrition, starvation, disease.
Treaty of Tientsin
opened up new ports of trade, allowed for foreigners to travel into the interior, and legalized the propagation of Christianity.
What were 2 significant impacts of the global agriculture market in 19th century China ("Food Security")?
- Farmers who had previously grown cereal grains turned to cash crops in order to make more money.
- Farmers would sell cash crops to the global market, and use profits to purchase grains - millet, sorghum, buckwheat - for their own diet.
Estimated number of deaths attributed to the 1876-78 famine in China
• Estimated 10 million deaths
"Famine" according to Michael Watts
"Famines are social crises that represent the failures of particular economic and political systems"
Percentage of world emissions within the territory of China
23.53% of world emissions
Accumulation by Dispossession
A process wherein wealth and power are centralized in the hands of the few by dispossessing individuals of their wealth or land
Percentage of global carbon emissions that support consumption in countries other than where they were emitted
Economic growth in the core corresponds to economic decline in the periphery.
Environmental improvements in the core correspond to environmental degradation in the periphery.