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Terms in this set (61)
What is Pluralism
the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.
individuals who organize to influence the governments programs and policies
an organized group in which members actually play a substantial role, sitting on committees and engaging in group projects
a type of membership group in which a professional staff conducts most of the groups activities
benefits, sought by groups, that are broadly available and cannot be denied to nonmembers
those who enjoy the benefits of collective goods but did not participate in acquiring them
special newsletters, periodicals, training programs, conferences, and other information provided to members of groups to entice others to join
special goods, services, or money provided to members of groups to entice others to join
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize friendship, networking, and consciousness raising
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize the purpose and accomplishments of the group
New Politics movement
a political movement that began in the 1960s and 1970s, made up of professionals and intellectuals for whom the civil rights and antiwar movements were formative experiences. This strengthened public interest groups
public interest groups
groups that claim they serve the general good rather than only their own particular interest
a strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature
the stable, cooperative relationship that often develops among a congressional committee, an administrative agency, and one of more supportive interest groups. not all of these relationships are triangular, but this type is the most typical
a loose network of elected leaders, public officials, activists, and interests groups drawn together by a specific policy issue
advertising designed to create a positive image of an organization
lobbying campaign in which a group mobilizes its membership to contract government officials in support of the groups position
political action committee (PAC)
a private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
James Madison's opinion
a good constitution encourages multitudes of interests so that no single interest, which he called a "faction", can ever tyrannize others. Assumption is, competition among interests will produce balance, with all interests regulating each other. this theory is called "pluralism"
interest groups are sometime referred to as what?
interest groups vs. political parties
interest groups tend to concern themselves with POLICIES of government; political parties tend to concern themselves with the PERSONNEL of government
Common types of interest groups
business and agricultural groups, labor groups, professional associations, public interest groups, ideological groups, public sector groups
Business and Agricultural groups
EX: national petroleum refiners association , american farm bureau federation.
equally active lobbyists. AFL-CIO, united mine workers, and teamsters are all groups that lobby on behalf of organized labor
ex: american bar association, american medical association
public interest groups
represent interests whose concerns are not addressed by traditional lobbies
organized in support of a particular political or philosophical perspective
public sector groups
perceived need for representation on capitol hill has generated these groups
leadership, money, agency/office, members
AARP ( american association of retired persons )
extremely successful in recruiting members. founded 1958, large and powerful organization, overcome the free rider problem
characteristics of members
people with higher incomes, higher level of educations, management or professional occupations
factors contributing to the rise and success of new politics =
Americans perspective on interest groups vs. lobbying
believe interest groups exert their influence through direct contact with members of congress, lobbying encompasses a broad range of activities that groups engage in with all sorts of government officials and public as a whole
1964 Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act defines lobbyist as
any person who shall engage himself for pay or any consideration for the purpose of attempting to influence the passage or defeat of any legislation of the congress of the united states
1995 lobbying disclosure act
requires all organizations employing lobbyists to register with congress and to disclose whom they represent, whom they lobby, what they are looking, and how much they are paid
when interest groups lack access they turn to...
litigation (using the courts)
interest groups can use the courts in 3 ways=
1) by bringing suit directly on behalf of the group itself, 2) by financing suits brought by individuals, 3) by filing a companion brief as an amicus curiae ("friend of the court") to an existing court case
most significant modern illustrations of the use of the courts as a strategy for political influence are =
those that accompanied the "sexual revolution" of the 1960s and the emergence of the movement for women's rights
going public: protests and demonstrations
sponsorship of boycotts, sit-ins, mass rallies, and marches by martin luther king jrs, SCLC and related organizations during the 1950s and 1960s is one of the most significant and successful cases of going public to create a more favorable climate of opinion by calling attention to abuses.
I run a Washington-based consulting firm. An interest group hires my firm to persuade Congress not to pass a particular bill. I use mailing lists to send members of Congress thousands of letters showing "an outpouring of opposition to the bill." In many cases, the individuals whose names were on the letters had no strong feelings or even no opinion about the bill. This process is called
According to James Madison, a good constitution
encourages multitudes of of interests so that no single interest can tyrannize other
According to the authors, in general, to obtain adequate political representation, forces from the bottom rungs of the socioeconomic ladder must be organized on the massive scale associated with
which person is most likely to join interest group: college student, doctor, single mother, walmart employee
.........wrote that "liberty is to faction as air is to fire" and that interests should be permitted to regulate themselves by competing with one another.
According to the authors of the textbook, by far the most common electoral strategy employed by interest groups i
giving money to political parties or particular candidates
Often contrasted with iron triangles, ___________ are the connections among elected leaders, public officials, activists, and interest groups drawn together by a particular policy issue
In 2004, the gambling industry in Missouri wanted to change the Missouri Constitution to expand gambling. It organized a campaign through voter signatures and put its proposal directly on the ballot for a vote of the people. This is called
In terms of the public-policy process, what is the significance of the concept of the iron triangle
policy is disproportionately made at the subsystem level
According to the authors, the explosion of interest-group activity in the United States has been the result of the
expansion of role of government
Interest groups offer numerous incentives for members to join. Insurance and discount cards would be examples of
in grassroots lobbying, interest groups
attempt to involve general citizen and voter
In this type of interest group, the organization employs professionals who conduct most of the group's activities, while members are called on largely to pay dues and make other contributions.
Which powerful interest group represents the interests of older Americans?
Common Cause is an example of a(n) ____________ interest group, the National Taxpayers Union is an example of a(n) ____________ interest group, and the Brookings Institution is an example of a(n) ____________ interest group
public interest; ideological; public sector
Over the past twenty-five years, the number of interest groups in the United States has
According to the textbook, what tactic did Microsoft and Wal-Mart use to get favorable treatment from the government
Which interest group's support of the health care reform was influential for many members of Congress?
framers of constitution argued for what
pluralism, in which all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the United States. They believed the outcome of this competition would be compromise and moderation, since no group would be able to achieve any of its goals without accommodating itself to some of the views of its many competitors
what had contributed to the increase in group activity/organization
The modern expansion of governmental economic and social programs has contributed to the enormous increase in group activity and organization
Another factor accounting for the explosion of interest-group activity in recent years was the emergence of a new set of forces in American politics
new politics movement
what other strategies do interest groups use
seek to use the electoral process to elect the right legislators in the first place and to ensure that those who are elected will owe them a debt of gratitude for their financial support and campaign activism. Some groups employ a nonpartisan strategy in electoral politics to avoid giving up access to one party by embracing the other.
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