95 terms

AP Human Geography Kaplan Review

Important vocabulary terms and major idea from the AP Human Geography Kaplan review book.
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Geography
The description of the Earth's surface and the people and processes that shape its landscapes.
Eratosthenes
A Greek philosopher who first used the term geography.
Cartographers
Mapmakers
Environmental determinism
A now-rejected theory that proposes that cultures are a direct result of where they exist.
Possiblism
A theory that suggest that humans possess the skills necessary to modify their environment to fit human skills. People can determine their outcomes.
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
A system that uses latitude and longitude coordinates to determine exact locations on Earth.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
A system that uses geographic information in layers to make maps and analyze data.
Scale
The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the same object on Earth. Large scale maps show small areas in great detail, while small scale maps, such as a world map, show a large area in broad detail.
Equal-area projection
A projection that attempts to keep size or amount of area intact, but distorts shapes. Example: Goodes-Homosline projection.
Conformal maps
Projections that distort area but keep shapes intact. Example: Lambert conic projection.
Mercator map
Map projection that is useful for determining distance on the surface of the Earth, but exaggerates land forms around the polar regions. Lines of latitude and longitude meet at right angles.
Cylindrical map
Shows true direction but loses distance. Example: Mercator map projection.
Planar projection
Shows true direction and examines the Earth from one point. Example: azimuthal map.
Conic projection
Projection that puts a cone over the Earth. It tries to keep distance intact but loses directional qualities.
Oval projection
Projection that combines cylindrical and conic projections. Example: Molleweide projection.
Flow-line maps
Maps used for determining movement, such as migration.
Choropleth maps
Maps that put data into spatial format. Useful for determining demograpic data, such as infant mortality rates.
Cartograms
Maps that chart and assign data by size. World population is often shown in this type of map.
Toponym
Place names
Human geography
The study of human characteristics on the landscape.
Physical geography
The study of physical features of the Earth.
Place
The description of what and how we see and experience a certain aspect of the Earth's surface.
Formal region
A region where anything and everything inside has the same characteristic or phenomena. May include: a religion, language, or cultural trait. Example: Germany.
Functional or nodal region
A region that can be defined around a certain point. Most intense around the center but lose their characteristics farther from the focal point. Example: radio station range, newspaper delivery route.
Distance decay
A process in which the sphere of influence reduces as distance increases.
Perceptual or vernacular region
A region that exists based on an individual's perception or feelings. Example: the concept of the South, the Midwest
Relative location
Location given in reference to another feature on the Earth's surface.
Absolute location
Mathematical location based on latitude and longitude coordinates.
Site
The internal, physical characteristics of a place.
Latitude
Lines that run east to west on the surface of the Earth.. 0 degrees is the equator, 90 degrees is the poles
Parallels
Latitude lines.
Equator
The latitude line that runs in the middle of the Earth; 0 degrees latitude.
Longitude
Lines that run north to south on the surface of the Earth. 0 degrees is the prime meridian, 180 degrees is the farthest one can travel and approximately marks the International Date Line.
Meridians
Longitude lines.
Prime meridian
0 degrees longitude, located in Greenwich, England and the division point between the Eastern and Western hemispheres.
Time zone system
For every 15 degrees longitude traveled east or west, a person will enter a new time zone.
International date line
Roughly 180 degrees longitude.
Human-environment interaction
How people modify or alter the environment to fit individual or societal needs.
Five toos
Areas where humans cannot live: too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, and too hilly.
Spatial interaction or movement
The connections between phenomena on Earth and the rest of the world.
Diffusion
The movement of any characteristic.
Hearth
The place where a characteristic began, and the place whence it spreads.
Relocation diffusion
The physical spread of a characteristic through the movement of people.
Expansion diffusion
The diffusion of a characteristic from a central node or a hearth.
Hierarchical diffusion
The diffusion of phenomenon as a result of a group spreading ideas or patterns in the society. Often is started by elite members such as political leaders or celebrities.
Contagious diffusion
Diffusion that occurs from contact with others. Examples: disease, ideas on the internet.
Stimulus diffusion
Diffusion that takes part of an idea and spreads it to create an innovative product.
Density
How often an object occurs within a given area or space.
Population density
The number of people per square mile/kilometer. Found by dividing the number of people by the amount of land in a certain area.
Physiological density
The toal number of people divided by arable land.
Arable land
Land that can be cultivated
Arithmetic density
Population density that uses all the land in a given area.
Concentration
The proximity of a particular phenomenon over the area in which it is spread. To find, one must count the same number of objects in different areas.
Clustered or agglomerated
In the area of concentration, areas are considered this if they are close together.
Dispersed or spread out
In the area of concentration, areas are considered this if they are spread out.
Pattern
How objects are organized in their space.
Demography
The study of population characteristics
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The number of births per 1,000 people.
Crude death rate (CDR)
The number of deaths per 1,000 people.
Overpopulation
The lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of the population of a defined area.
Carrying capacity
The ability of the land to sustain a certain number of people. Overpopulation occurs when carrying capacity is reached.
Ecumene
Habitable land.
Thomas Malthus
A British economist who concluded the rate of population was growing faster than agricultural productivity and predicted a population crisis.
Linear growth
Growth that occurs evenly across each unit of time.
Demographic transition model
A population model comprised of four stages.
Stage 1 of the demographic transition model
Hunting and gathering society with low total population that experiences many fluctuations.
Stage 2 of the demographic transition model
Agricultural society which experiences unprecedented population growth due to a decline in death rates because of more stable food sources. If a country's birth rate and death rate are higher than the world averages (21 and 9, respectively) then it's in stage 2.
Infant mortality rate
The number of babies per 1,000 that die before the age of 1.
Total fertility rate
The number of children an average woman delivers during her childbearing years (approximately 15-45).
Stage 3 of the demographic transition model
Industrial society that sees a drop in both birth and death rates and a decline in population. This is mostly due to the industrialization where children are seen as more of a liability, and women enter the workforce and delay childbearing.
Stage 4 of the demographic transition model
Tertiary society that experiences very low birth and death rates and a sharp decline in population. The birth and death rates become equal, and sometimes the death rate overtakes the birth rate.
The industrial revolution
A process that began in Britain in the mid-1700s and led to a more mechanized farming system and an increase in industry.
Zero population growth
When the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate.
Sex ratio
The number of males to females in a population.
Population pyramid
A graph that charts populations based on gender and age. Can be analyzed in terms of the demographic transition model and shows age distribution. A large base indicates many children and is characteristic of LDC's. A large top indicates many elderly people and is characteristic of MDC's.
Population projections
The use of demographic data to determine future population by analyzing birth and death rates.
LDC
Less developed country.
MDC
More developed country.
Dependency ratio
Individuals ages 0-14 and those over 65 depend on the workforce for support.
Demographic momentum
Continued population increase as a result of a large segment of the population being young.
Demographic equation
Global births minus global deaths; determines the population growth rate for the world.
Natality rate
The number of live births per 1,000 people.
Enfranchisement or suffrage
The right to vote.
Doubling time
The number of years it takes for a country to double its population. The lower the number, the faster the country will double its population. Doubling time = 70 divided by growth rate.
Sustainability
The saving of resources for future generations to allow them to live at the same or better standard of living than the population today.
Causes of population increase
Medical advances (affects death rates), quantity and quality of food, ethnic and religious issues (forbidding birth control), and economic issues.
Disease diffusion
The spread of disease.
Causes of population decline
Natural disasters including famines or plagues, war or political turmoil, economic issues (migration).
Migration
The movement of people.
Immigrants
People who move into a country or region.
Emigrants
People who move out or leave a country or region.
Net migration
The number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants.
Pull factor
A positive perception of a place that convinces a person to move there.
Push factor
A negative perception of a place that convinces a person to move away from the place. There are three types: economic, political, and environmental.
Refugees
People who are forced to flee their homeland to seek asylum in another country.