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Why has life expectancy increased in 20th century?

Medical advancement, better sanitation


long term

cross sectional

snapshot in the




expression of gene


deciding factor for the gene

epigentic view of development

Bidirectional interchange between hereditraty and development


harmful agent

Cephalocaudal principle

growth from head to extremities

Piaget's View of Cognitive Development

Children actively construct their knowledge, Content and quality of knowledge increase, schemes


a group people having approximately the same age

cohort effect

Influence of shared characteristics of a group that was born in the same general period.

Bronfenbrenner's Theory

macrosystem, exosystem, mesosystem, microsystem, individual


new information incorporatied


adjusting schemes to fit in new experiences and information

stages of cognitive devemopment (piaget)

infant- sensorimotor, toddlerhood-preoperational, childhood- concrete operation, adolesence- formal operations

Study of Life-span Development

biological cognitive and socieoemotional domains (interdependent)


complete set of developemental instructions for creating proteins

Epigenetic View

the view that suggests that both nature and nurture influence each other and affect development

Which part of the brain takes the longest to develop?

prefrontal cortex

Benefits of Myelination

Quicker reaction time, Less clumsiness, More memory, Faster completion of tasks

gross motor skills

Big muscles such as arms and legs

fine motor skills

Smaller muscles such as fingers or toes

HPA axis

the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex which are activated by stress make up the __?__ __?__.

Environmental Effects on Thelarche
(breast development) onset (Steingraber)

caloric intake, lack of exercise, tv viewing, stress, chemicals in enviornment


midlife transition in which fertility declines (both men and women)


properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

Theory of Mind

An understanding that the self and others have emotions, perceptions, intentions. Develops in preschoolers ages 4 and up

Emotional Thinkers

adolescents- Not as much maturity as adults in handling hormones, and affects decision making, risk taking, aggression

Postformal Thought

combines logic with emotion and practical experience; Used in adult thinking

self-regulation skills

play and learning, private speech


Sociocultural Theory: Zone of Proximal Development, Intersubjectivity, Scaffolding

Zone of Proximal Development

area between what a child can learn on their own and with help.


Children reach a mutual understanding through social interaction


learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level

Crystallized Intelligence

which applies cultural knowledge to solving problems

fluid Intelligence

one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

erikson's psychosocial stages- early infancy

trust vs. distrust

erikson's psychosocial stages- late infancy

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

erikson's psychosocial stages- early childhood

initiative vs. guilt

erikson's psychosocial stages- middle childhood

industry vs. inferiority

erikson's psychosocial stages- adolescence

identity vs. role confusion

erikson's psychosocial stages- young adulthood

intimacy vs. isolation

erikson's psychosocial stages- middle adulthood

generativity vs. stagnation

erikson's psychosocial stages- late adulthood

integrity vs. despair

kolhberg's stages of moral reasoning- preconventional/ preoperational

birth-9, avoid punishment, gain reward

kolhberg's stages of moral reasoning- conventional/ concrete operations

age 9-20, value relationships and conformity, social system laws and morality

kolhberg's stages of moral reasoning- postconventional/ formal operations

agreed upon rights, universal ethics

justice perspective

relies on formal rules to define right and wrong

care perspective

the moral perspective which vews people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships, with others.

Sociometric Status- popular

frequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked

Sociometric Status- average

receive an average number of positive and negative nominations from peers

Sociometric Status- Neglected

infrequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked

Sociometric Status- Rejected

seldom nominated as best friend; often disliked

Sociometric Status- Controversial

frequently nominated as best friend; often disliked

aggressive rejected


withdrawn rejected


Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Diffusion

not yet experienced a crisis, or made any commitments (undecided and apathetic)

Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Foreclosure

have made commitments to values and vocation but not through exploration or crisis (accepting parents ideologies and expectations)

Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Moratorium

in midst of exploring (crisis) but making no commitments

Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Achievement

have experienced crisis/exploration and then decided/made a commitment

Identity Achievement

commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration


childhood and late adulthood


middle adulthood

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