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64 terms

Intro to Developmental Psych

STUDY
PLAY
Why has life expectancy increased in 20th century?
Medical advancement, better sanitation
longitudinal
long term
cross sectional
snapshot in the
Genotype
genetic
phenotype
expression of gene
epigenome
deciding factor for the gene
epigentic view of development
Bidirectional interchange between hereditraty and development
teratogen
harmful agent
Cephalocaudal principle
growth from head to extremities
Piaget's View of Cognitive Development
Children actively construct their knowledge, Content and quality of knowledge increase, schemes
cohort
a group people having approximately the same age
cohort effect
Influence of shared characteristics of a group that was born in the same general period.
Bronfenbrenner's Theory
macrosystem, exosystem, mesosystem, microsystem, individual
Assimilation
new information incorporatied
accommodation
adjusting schemes to fit in new experiences and information
stages of cognitive devemopment (piaget)
infant- sensorimotor, toddlerhood-preoperational, childhood- concrete operation, adolesence- formal operations
Study of Life-span Development
biological cognitive and socieoemotional domains (interdependent)
genome
complete set of developemental instructions for creating proteins
Epigenetic View
the view that suggests that both nature and nurture influence each other and affect development
Which part of the brain takes the longest to develop?
prefrontal cortex
Benefits of Myelination
Quicker reaction time, Less clumsiness, More memory, Faster completion of tasks
gross motor skills
Big muscles such as arms and legs
fine motor skills
Smaller muscles such as fingers or toes
HPA axis
the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex which are activated by stress make up the __?__ __?__.
Environmental Effects on Thelarche
(breast development) onset (Steingraber)
caloric intake, lack of exercise, tv viewing, stress, chemicals in enviornment
Climacteric
midlife transition in which fertility declines (both men and women)
conservation
properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Theory of Mind
An understanding that the self and others have emotions, perceptions, intentions. Develops in preschoolers ages 4 and up
Emotional Thinkers
adolescents- Not as much maturity as adults in handling hormones, and affects decision making, risk taking, aggression
Postformal Thought
combines logic with emotion and practical experience; Used in adult thinking
self-regulation skills
play and learning, private speech
Vygotsky
Sociocultural Theory: Zone of Proximal Development, Intersubjectivity, Scaffolding
Zone of Proximal Development
area between what a child can learn on their own and with help.
Intersubjectivity
Children reach a mutual understanding through social interaction
scaffolding
learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level
Crystallized Intelligence
which applies cultural knowledge to solving problems
fluid Intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
erikson's psychosocial stages- early infancy
trust vs. distrust
erikson's psychosocial stages- late infancy
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
erikson's psychosocial stages- early childhood
initiative vs. guilt
erikson's psychosocial stages- middle childhood
industry vs. inferiority
erikson's psychosocial stages- adolescence
identity vs. role confusion
erikson's psychosocial stages- young adulthood
intimacy vs. isolation
erikson's psychosocial stages- middle adulthood
generativity vs. stagnation
erikson's psychosocial stages- late adulthood
integrity vs. despair
kolhberg's stages of moral reasoning- preconventional/ preoperational
birth-9, avoid punishment, gain reward
kolhberg's stages of moral reasoning- conventional/ concrete operations
age 9-20, value relationships and conformity, social system laws and morality
kolhberg's stages of moral reasoning- postconventional/ formal operations
agreed upon rights, universal ethics
justice perspective
relies on formal rules to define right and wrong
care perspective
the moral perspective which vews people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships, with others.
Sociometric Status- popular
frequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked
Sociometric Status- average
receive an average number of positive and negative nominations from peers
Sociometric Status- Neglected
infrequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked
Sociometric Status- Rejected
seldom nominated as best friend; often disliked
Sociometric Status- Controversial
frequently nominated as best friend; often disliked
aggressive rejected
bully
withdrawn rejected
bullied
Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Diffusion
not yet experienced a crisis, or made any commitments (undecided and apathetic)
Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Foreclosure
have made commitments to values and vocation but not through exploration or crisis (accepting parents ideologies and expectations)
Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Moratorium
in midst of exploring (crisis) but making no commitments
Marcia's Four Identity Statuses- Achievement
have experienced crisis/exploration and then decided/made a commitment
Identity Achievement
commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration
being-doing
childhood and late adulthood
doing-being
middle adulthood