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75 terms

Science Ch. 14-16 Unit Test Study Guide

STUDY
PLAY
According to fig. 14-1 wotf statements about the distribution of land and water is true?
The Southern Hemisphere is covered by much more water than the Northern Hemisphere
which ocean in fig. 14-1 is represented by point A?
Atlantic
where trenches dont exist, the steep continental slope merges into a more gradual incline known as the continental _____
rise
isolated volcanic peaks on the ocean floor are called _______
seamounts
wotf is NOT true about deep ocean trenches
they are geologically very stable
which submersible has been used for deep-sea research
Alvin
whats the speed of sound in water
1500 meters per second
wotf can submersibles do
(both) collect data about areas of the ocean that were previously unreachable by humans and remain underwater for long periods of time
wotf currents is associated w/ downslope movements of dense sediment-rich water
turbidity currents
wotf is associated w/ mid-ocean ridges
mountainous topography
important mineral deposits, including large reservoirs of oil and natural gas, are associated w/
continental shelves
wotf occurs @ the continental margin in the pacific ocean? volcanic activity, earthquakes, plate interactions
all of the above
mineral-rich water, heated by newly formed oceanic crust, escapes through cracks in the ocean floor called _____
hydrothermal vents
calcareous ooze is an ex. of _____
biogenous sediment
manganese nodules are an ex. of ______
hydrogenous sediment
wotf is NOT a biogenous sediment
manganese nodules
which type of sediment is made up mainly of the shells of diatoms and radiolarians
siliceous ooze
biogenous sediment is made up of ______
shells and skeletons of marine organisms
the persian gulf, the gulf of mexico, and the north sea are all known for their reserves of what ocean resource
oil
what is one disadvantage of using gas hydrates
they rapidly break down at surface temps and pressures
how much methane may be locked up in sediments containing gas hydrates
20 quadrillion cubic meters
which ocean resources are second in economic value to oil
sand and gravel
which ocean resource is currently NOT economically profitable to mine
manganese nodules
when seawater evaporates, the concentration of salts increases until wotf occurs
the salts precipitate out of solution
what technology do scientists use to measure ocean depth
sonar
what is the most abundant salt in the sea
sodium chloride
1000 grams of seawater would consist of how many grams of dissolved substances
35
what is the principal source of dissolved substances in the oceans
weathering
what is the 2nd major source of elements in seawater
earth's interior
the highest salinity would be found in wotf areas
an area w/ high rates of evaporation
which layer of the ocean experiences a rapid change in density w/ depth
pycnocline
in addition to salinity, what factor affects the density of seawater
temperature
wotf properties most determines water's vertical position in the ocean
density
where would you find the lowest density seawater
surface mixed zone
wotf is NOT a category of marine organisms
aphotic
organisms that drift w/ ocean currents are called _____
plankton
what term describes organisms that live on or near the ocean floor
benthos
marine organisms are classified according to how they
live and move
wotf is a type of nekton
shark
how do plankton differ from nekton
plankton are floaters
wotf best describes the ocean bottom: cold, quiet, dark
all of the above
what is true about the deepest parts of the ocean floor
animals live in constant darkness
how do animals survive in the deeper parts of the seafloor
they feed on each other
the open ocean of any depth is called the _____
pelagic zone
what factors influence a region's photosynthetic productivity
nutrients and sunlight
fig 15-1 shows the productivity of diatoms and zooplankton in polar oceans, according to fig 15-1, when does zooplankton biomass peak compared to the peak of diatom productivity
zooplankton peak later
fig 15-1 shows the productivity of diatoms and zooplankton in polar oceans. According to fig 15-1, when does zooplankton biomass decline in polar oceans
october
the transfer of energy b/t trophic levels avgs about
10%
which term best describes energy transfer b/t trophic levels
inefficient
which animal would have the greatest chance of survival
one fed through a food web and with a wide variety of prey
b/c of the coriolis effect, ocean currents in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the ___
right
which force is involved in the development of surface currents
friction
the gulf stream affecta the climate of ____
great britain
the influence of cold currents is mostly felt in the _____
tropics
the rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water is called ____
upwelling
which process does NOT decrease the salinity of water
formation of sea ice
density currents move _____
vertically
according to the conveyor belt model of ocean circulation, what happens when water reaches the poles
the salinity of the water increases
wotf is visible evidence of energy passing through water
wave
what is fetch
the distance that wind travels across open water
the height, length, and period of a wave does NOT depend on wotf
tidal range
wotf is NOT true about a wave in the open ocean
water particles travel w/ the wave
when is tha daily tidal range greatest
spring tide
which statement best describes the tidal pattern shown in fig 16-1
there is a single high tide and a single low tide each day
whats the name of the tidal pattern shown in fig 16-1
diurnal
the movement of water that parallels the shore within the surf zone is called ____
longshore current
waves in shallow water become bent and negin to run parallel to shore, a process known as ______
refraction
what happens to waves when there is refraction in bays
they expand less energy
an isolated remnant of wave erosion is a _____
sea stack
a sandbar that completely crosses a bay, closing it off from the open ocean, is a _____
baymouth bar
wotf is a landform created by wave erosion
sea arch
a ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a _____
spit
what feature connects an island to the mainland or to another island
tombolo
wotf decreases beach erosion w/o the construction of protective structures
beach nourishment
wotf structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves
breakwater