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csd 205 final exam nervous system
Terms in this set (29)
function of the basal ganglia:
initiation of movement patterns; control of background movement
parts of basal ganglia:
parts of the diencephalon:
what is the diencephalon's function?
acts as a relay system by receiving and filtering afferent sensory information then relaying it on to other parts of the brain (cortex)
largest part of diencephalon; final relay for sensory information directed to cortex
part of diencephalon that provides the organizational structure for the limbic system
part of diencephalon that modulates all output of the basal ganglia
where is the cerebellum located and what is its main function?
in hindbrain (largest component); coordinates motor commands with sensory inputs to control movement. Incapable of initiating movement but is related to control of rate and range of movement and force that it is executed
what is the brainstem's function?
intermediate stage of organization between the simple reflexive responses at level of spinal cord and complex responses generated by cerebral cortex
parts of brianstem:
medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
part of brainstem that has axons carrying motor command from left hemisphere that cross to the right of this, and continue to right side of spinal cord
part of the brainstem that is the bridge between the medulla oblongata and midbrain
part of the brainstem that is most superior point and provides communication between brainstem and cerebrum
cranial nerves and functions:
I olfactory: smell
II optic: vision
III oculomotor: eye movement
IV trochlear: eye movement
V trigeminal: mastication, sensory for face, sinuses, teeth
VI abducens: eye movement
VII facial: facial muscles, sensory for front 2/3 of tongue & velum
VIII vestibulocochlear: hearing & balance
IX glossopharyngeal: pharyngeal muscles, sensory for back 1/3 of tongue
X vagus: heart, throat, resp.sys., intestinal tract
XI accessory: neck muscles
XII hypoglossal: tongue muscles
what comprises spinal cord and how many pairs of nerves?
sensory nerves have cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia and motor neuron bodies lie within spinal cord; 31 pairs of spinal nerves
what are upper motor neurons?
motor neurons that have their cell bodies above the segment where spinal cord originates
what are lower motor neurons?
the final neurons in the efferent chain
what are efferent tracts in NS?
transmit information from the brain to the spinal nerves
what are afferent tracts in the NS?
transmit information concerning the physical state of the limbs and trunk to higher brain centers
describe process of a synapse:
when a neuron is stimulated, axon discharges a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. neurotransmitter stimulates receptor on next neuron, and ion channels in the next neuron's membrane open up and allow ions to enter, creating an action potential. this action potential causes an electric current that sends information up the axis away from the cell body
what is a neuromuscular junction?
the point of synapse between a sensory and motor fiber- point where muscle and neuron connect
describe the synapse between nerve and muscle fiber
looks like a synapse, but has a terminal endplate on the axon, with a synaptic cleft. acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) is dumped into the active zone, and a miniature end plate potential (MEPP) is generated. If there are sufficient numbers of MEPPs, muscle action potential will be generated. When the MEPP is generated, the muscle fiber twitches and whole muscle contracts
what are association areas?
provide highest order of processing of cerebral cortex; permit information from signal input to flow among the various processing sites, effectively connecting modalities
association area that receives input from the auditory, visual, and somatosensory regions, permitting the integration of this information into language function; important to SLP's
temporal-occipital-parietal (TOP) region
association area that is involved with motivation, emotion, and memory,
limbic association area
association area that is involved with integration of information in preparation for the motor act, as well as higher-level cognitive processes
prefrontal association area
association area that is involved in limbic system function, as well as motor planning memory associated with delayed execution
main functions of left hemisphere
most aspect of language
speech planning & programming
analytical thought processes
main functions of right hemisphere
perception of emotions
perception of music and art
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