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Terms in this set (52)
What is an emotion
the body's multidimensional response to any event that enhances or inhibits one's goals.
your mind and body's way to reacting so that meeting your goals feel good, and not meeting them feels bad.
why is understanding emotions important in interpersonal communication?
emotions are so connected to our body, mind, and behaviors that they practically overtake us. understanding this powerful and often mysterious forces can help us to appreciate the enormous role it plays in the ways relate to other.
What is the distinction between an emotion and a mood?
An emotion is a response to specific event, and a good is a feeling that has no specific identifiable cause. you cannot identify the reason you feel good or bad, its mood. Moods also are more persistent, often lasting for days or week ad a time. Emotions are relatively short-lived.
A state of contentment, joy, pleasant, and cheer. Happiness tends to make us share our joy with others by seeking contact and being emotionally expressive in our interactions. Happiness also contributes to our health and well-being by helping us recover from the harmful effect from the stress.
Love and passion
love is the emotion if caring, feeling attached to, and feeling deeply committed to someone. passion is a secondary emotion consisting of joy and surprise, plus experiences of excitement an attraction for another.
love and passion are examples of emotions, which means they typically arise out of social interaction.
liking is a positive overall evaluation of another person. when we feel liking, we often display that emotion using high immediacy behaviors such as smiling and touching. Also, we tend to share activities.
an emotional response to being wronged.
a feeling of superiority over, and disrespect for others.
a feeling of revulsion in reaction to something offensive.
the perception that the existence or the quality of an important relationship is being threatened by a third party.
the desire for something another person has.
Sadness and depression
Sadness is an emotion involving feeling unhappy, sorrowful, and discouraged, usually as a result of some form of loss. depression is a physical illness involving excessive fatigue, insomnia, changes in weight, feelings of worthlessness, and or thoughts of subside of death.
the emotional process of dealing with profound loss.
the mind and body's reaction to perceive danger.
Emotions are physiological
when you experience emotions, particularly intense ones, your body reacts in patterned , predictable way. fear causes your heart to beat faster, your breathing rate to increase. these responses put you in state of high alert. each emotion cause responses that help the body first to deal with that specific emotion and then restore itself to a natural, balanced state.
Emotions are cognitive
we cognitively label the physical outcomes of emotion to identity a particular emotional state.
Emotions are behavioral
emotions have action tendencies that cause us to behave in particular ways.
Emotions are social and cultural
the emotions we experience and express are partially determined by the social and cultural messages and practices we have learned.
Emotions vary in valence
the most fundamental way to classify emotions whether they are positive or negative.
we can classify most emotions as either one but not always.
Give 2 examples of how culture affects emotional experience and expression.
geography: living in a warm climate would make people more expressive of their emotions. people southern parts of countries are more emotionally expressive and north regions, even in the US.
co-culture: some co-cultures encourage us to examine their emotions directly and express them freely. ex. theater group, community group
military, is discourage to do so.
gender roles for emotional expression.
androgynous(both feminine and masculine) are more emotionally expressive than only masculine. for certain emotion, such as happiness, sadness, and disgust, also more expressive than feminine.
What are display rules?
un written codes that govern the ways people manage and express emotions.
What is emotional contagion?
the tendency to mimic the emotional experiences and expressions of others.
Explain research on gender roles for jealousy and emotional expression.
men are more likely than women to experience sexual jealousy. women are more likely than men to experience emotional jealousy. sex difference across cultures also indicates that women and men have different patterns of brain activity when imaging sexual and emotional infidelity.
men are more likely than women to express their jealous through behaviors such as confronting the rival, aggressive sex, promiscuous, wooing, breaking off the relationship.
women are more likely than men to prove their skills, physical appearance, try make jealous,demanding increased .
What is emotional intelligence?
the ability to perceive and understand emotions, use emotions to facilitate thought, and manage emotions constructively.
Emotions vary in intensity
when emotional experiences become overly intense, they can be debilitating. they impair our ability to function. it is important to recognize that you may not be in control of your thoughts and behaviors, you should ask someone who you can trust. it won't last so long.
What are the steps suggested for identifying emotions?
1. listen to your body
2. pay attention to your thoughts
3. take stock of the situation
What is meant by accepting responsibility for emotions?
you determine your own thoughts and emotions by describing them with I-statements rather than You-statements. "I feel hurt when you insult me." this statement acknowledges that your emotions are your own, but it also identifies the specific event that cause them, making it clear to the receiver which behaviors you are a sing him or her to change.
What is separating emotions from actions?
being able to determine the most appropriate and most effective way for you to act on your emotions.
before you act on your emotions, its generally best to stop and think about the possible effects of your actions.
Give examples of material rewards associated with social relationships.
our needs for money, food, shelter and transportation. we tend to share these types of resources with people to shame we feel close.
moving, a place to stay, a few dollars to tide you over until payday.
Explain how social relationships affect physical health.
twice stronger for a heart attack.
a big factor for premature morality as cigarette smoking, obesity, and elevated blood pressure.
1. happiness and relaxation close friendship provide help us to ward off the negative effect of stress.
2. friends can look for our safety a d well-being.
Discuss the costs associated with maintaining friendships
spend time together she you want to be alone.
you must make an emotional investment when your friends need your support.
material cost for doing sth together
physical investments as well.
we decide that the rewards of friendship are worth the costs. we invest our energies and resources because we think they benefit us.
Define the three forms of interpersonal attraction: physical, social, and task.
physical: attraction to someone's physical appearance.
social: attraction to someone's personality.
task attraction: attraction to someone's abilities and disability.
Compare and contrast the principles of uncertainty reduction theory and predicted outcome value theory.
URT: suggesting that ppl are motivated to reduce their uncertainty about others.
the less uncertain you are, you will like the person more.
POVT: predicting that we form relationships when we think the effort will be worth it.
if we predict positive outcomes at the first meeting, we approach in the future, but if its negative, we avoid the person.
Articulate what it means to be overbenefited and underbenefited and what the consequences of each are, according to equity theory.
over-benefited: the state in which one's relational rewards exceed one's relational costs.
under-benefited: the state in which one's relational costs exceed one's relational rewards.
good relationship is one in which a person's ratio of costs and rewards is equal to that of the person's partner.
Define and give examples of relational maintenance behaviors.
behaviors used to maintain and strengthen personal relationship.
Articulate some of the empirically supported sex differences in friendship.
same sex friends: women and men value different aspects of their respective friendship.
women:conversational and emotional expressiveness.
men: shared activities and interests.
those differences in same sex friendship are just average not all.
the differe does not mean that friendships are more important to one sex than to other. women and men equal levels of closeness in their same-sex frienship.
opposite sex friends: provide opportunities to see things from each other's perspective. often attracted by physical or romantic reasons.
Define and give examples of the social and task dimensions of work relationships.
social dimension: your personal relationship with the co-worker
task dimension: your professional relationship
your friends with co-worker AA was promoted. as a friend, you want her to have the promotion, but as a co-worker, you don't believe she has really earned it.
Give examples of the benefits and risks of forming social relationships with superiors or subordinates.
benefits: adds to your job satisfaction.
risk: what's the best for the speriors-subordinates relationship is not always what's the best for the friendship.
Explain the meaning of a dialectical tension.
conflict between two important but opposing needs or desires.
Exemplify the autonomy-connectedness, openness-closedness, and novelty-predictability tensions in relationships.
autonomy: the feeling to be one's own person
connection: the desire to be close to other.
openness: the desire for disclosure and honesty
closeness: the desire to keep certain facts, thoughts, or idea to oneself.
predictability: the desire for consitency and stability
novelty: the desire for fresh, new experiences.
Define and give examples of the initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding stages in Knapp's relationship development model.
initiating stage: the stage of relationship development when people meet and interact for the first time.
experimenting: when individuals have conversations to learn more about each other.
intensify: when individuals move from being acquaintances to being close friends.
integrating: a deep commitment has formed, and there is a strong sense that the relationship has its own identity.
bonding: the partners publicly announce their commitment.
Compare and contrast traditional, separate, independent, and mixed couples (from Fitzpatrick's typology).
traditional: culturally conventional approach to marriage.gender typical decisions of labor. spouses engages in it rather than avoid it.
separate:similar to traditional couples except spouses are autonomous rather than interdependent. they often have their own interests and social networks. because of the lack of inerdependence, they often ignore confluict rather than dealing with it directly even when they disagree.
independent: do not believe in conventional gender roles or divisions of labor. but they are highly interdependent. they engage in conflict.
mixed:the two supose have differing beliefs about their marrige. common type of mixed couple: expectation of wife is traditional and husband's is separate.
Define family roles and family rituals.
family roles: embody the functions individuals serve in the family system.
family rituals: repetitive behaviors that have special meaning for a coup or relationship.
Discuss the significance of family stories and family secrets, particularly as they pertain to socializing new members into a family.
family stories: give us a sense of our history, express what family members expect of one another, and rainforce connections across different generations.
stories are told and told and they bocome part of family's collective knowledge. family stories convey an understanding message about the family, such as we are proud, we stick together.
family secrets: they keep family's privacy and rainforce the family's identity and exclusively because only family members are allowed to know.
Define and give examples of confirming messages.
behaviors that indicate how much we value another person.
Articulate.Gottman's 5:1 ratio of positive to negative communication in satisfied couples.
as long as there are five times as many positive interactions between partners as there are negative, the relationship is likely to be stable.Very unhappy couples tend to have more negative than positive interactions. The bottom line: even though some level of negativity is necessary for a stable relationship, positivity is what nourishes your love.
What is flooding?
people stonewall when they feel emotionally and phychologically flooded, or incapable of engaging in the conversation and longer.
Gottman's 4 horsemen: what is the happens during this process?
contempt: the expression of insults and attacks on another's self-worth. put down and degrade the other person. it increase physical stress and can impair their health.ex. you stupid idiot.make fun of the othe person, eye rolling, sneering.
defensiveness: the tendency to deny the validity of criticisms directed at the self.defensive ppl respons to complaints with complaints. ppl tend to feel defensive about critisism.
stonewalling: withdrawing from a conversation or an interaction. shutting down. when one stonewalls, it become almost impossible for the couple to resolve its disagreements.
Climate: defensive and supportive behaviors
defensiveness: excessive concern with guarding oneself against the threat of criticism. ex. when make fun of something sensitive, weight, income. defensive behavior is a sign of negative communicaton climate. when you create defensive msg, you create emotional and phychological distance between others and yourself. others also behave defensively.
supportive: a person's feeling of assurance that others care about and will protect him or her. supportive message creates the content of the conversation without making others feel attacked.
Reacting to criticism
the first warning sign
it becomes counterproductive when it focuses on people's personality or character rather than on their behavior.
it also tends to be global statements about a person's value or virtue in stead of specific critiques about topic of the conflict.
criticisms so often come across personal attacks in stead of as accurate description of the source of conflict, they tend to inflame conflict situation.
the knowing and intentional transmission of information to create a false belief in the hearer.
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Psychology: Principles in Practice
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Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
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Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
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