139 terms

Sociology 203 Final

Chapters 6,8,9,12,13
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
Functionalists believe deviance has no useful purpose in society and only contributes to social chaos.
Techniques of neutralization
In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.
An innovator
John desires the best things in life—a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
Labeling theory, differential association theory, and control theory all represent the conflict perspective.
Degradation ceremonies
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
Stripping an individual of his or her identity as a group member is an example of using a degradation ceremony to brand someone as an outsider.
Inner control
Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.
The cultural relativity of deviance
Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.
Sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people, including violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance.
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
Human sexuality illustrates how a group's definitions of an act, and not the act itself, determines whether or not it is considered deviant.
In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society
According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?
A serial killer has recently been convicted of the charges brought against him. In which state is he MOST likely to receive the death penalty?
The chances of receiving the death penalty are greatly affected by geography (where the murder took place), social class, and gender.
The conflict perspective
Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail.
The ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.
Edwin Sutherland
Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.
control theory
Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?
symbolic interactionist
Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?
The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________.
positive sanction
Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.
social control
What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?
Based on strain theory, there are four deviant models of adaptation and one mode considered to be socially acceptable.
symbolic interactionism
The relativity of deviance is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?
differential association theory
The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.
appeal to higher loyalties
When Anthony worked as a prison counselor, he would often ask property offenders why they committed the crime. The overwhelming response was, "I had to feed my family." How would Sykes and Matza classify this response?
They are all retreatists.
Based on Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?
Sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people, including violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance.
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.
Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder, which causes one class to increase while others decrease, is called ________ mobility.
Because of tradition and a reluctance to change, few sons exceed their fathers' positions on the social-class ladder.
In exchange mobility, about the same number of people move up and down the social-class ladder, which results in the overall social-class system showing little change.
Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown poorer.
The higher a person's position on the social class ladder, the more likely they will become a victim of crime.
The feminization of poverty
The trend in the United States in which MOST poor families are headed by women is called ________.
The greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women
What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?
Intergenerational mobility
What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
The South
What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
One's occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate with respect to determining social prestige in modern society?
Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class.
Of the six social classes in America, the lower middle class has the highest percentage of members.
Status inconsistency is common for winners of multimillion-dollar lotteries, especially when the status of their new wealth exceeds the status of their education and occupation.
It multiplies the food budget by three.
To determine the poverty line, the U.S. government calculates a low-cost food budget for a family of a specific size, then subjects that number to which modification?
Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education.
Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.
What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?
Changes in the social structure are the most likely cause.
John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty, and must go on welfare. What is the MOST likely cause of John's poverty?
________ are the MOST likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today.
Conflict theorists would consider voting as being more of a ritualistic process than a demonstration of people exercising power in a democracy.
The value of a person's property minus that person's debt, a person's net worth
When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________.
They will claim the higher status.
When individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?
People in the capitalist class are more likely to experience mental health problems because of the excessive stress associated with managing high-powered jobs.
The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.
Which statement regarding the nation's income is MOST accurate?
Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?
Poverty is relatively equally distributed in America by state, and between rural and urban settings.
The power elite
What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?
Because of the objectivity and accuracy of the poverty line concept, most sociologists agree that the concept of poverty is accurately portrayed in America.
The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased.
In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?
There is a direct relationship between the amount of education an occupation requires and the prestige it holds in society.
Wealth, power, prestige
What are the three variables identified as defining social class?
Christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation
Which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of "eligible" marriage partners based on background expectations?
Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder, which causes one class to increase while others decrease, is called ________ mobility.
Working Class
Politically, the social class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.
petty bourgeoisie
Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright's model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a(n) ________.
Status Inconsistency
Phil, a janitor for an expensive apartment-house complex in Chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many of the tenants in the building he maintains. Lenski would note that Phil's high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of ________.
A person may voluntarily become a minority.
one race is superior to another; pure races exist
As described in the text, what are two myths of race?
Because the term "Latino" refers to an ethnic group, Latinos may identify themselves as being black, white, or Native American.
Individual discrimination, rather than institutional discrimination, is the reason that minority group members are less likely to be given a mortgage.
The dominant group
In society, which group has the greatest power, privileges, and social status?
Slavery as it was practiced in the pre-Civil War South and apartheid as practiced in South Africa are two examples of internal colonialism.
Direct transfer
The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.
What is another name for multiculturalism?
Minority group
What term did Louis Wirth use to define groups of people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
Everyone who shares a respective ethnic identity expresses that identity through the same ethnic work.
Prejudice is an action; discrimination is an attitude.
Discrimination can occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against.
Institutional discrimination
Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.
Internal colonialism
Slavery and apartheid are both examples of the ways in which a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?
The systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their presumed race or ethnicity is called ________.
The United States Census Bureau allows respondents to choose as many races as they wish in describing who they consider themselves to be.
Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?
Prejudice and discrimination
Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe ________.
Ethnic work
For the last five years, Sarah has been trying to recover her ethnic heritage by tracing her family line. This attempt to trace her family line is an example of ________.
The way in which race is determined is a universal cultural constant.
The reserve labor force
The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed is called ________.
The process of compartmentalization helps people who engage in genocide to maintain a sense of being good and moral.
Forced assimilation
When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.
Research has demonstrated that prejudice can have positive ramifications.
A race
What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?
Individual discrimination, rather than institutional discrimination, is the reason that minority group members are less likely to be given a mortgage.
The expansion of political boundaries and migration
Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?
The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.
People who are prejudiced against one racial or ethnic group tend to be prejudiced against other groups.
Both the bride and groom are older than at any other time.
How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?
the gendered division of labor
Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ________.
It is still customary in U.S. society for a bride to accept her husband's last name. What is the line of authority this represents?
It is 12 times more common.
How has the rate of cohabitation changed over the past 30 years?
In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.
Research shows divorced fathers often have little contact with their children.
A nuclear family
Sociologically, a family that consists of a husband, wife and children is called a ________.
Sociologists use the term homogamy to refer to the tendency for people who share similar characteristics to marry one another.
Romantic attraction
The feeling of sexual attraction and idealization of another is called ________.
The rate of divorce among remarried couples is much lower than the rate of divorce among first time marriages.
Commitment is the essential difference between marriage and cohabitation.
It is his family of orientation
John was adopted as an infant by the Smiths, and has always considered them his real family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?
A husband or wife brings a child into the new family from a prior relationship.
Sociologically, what is a blended family?
The term for children who return to live at home after college is ________.
It is about the same as the divorce rate of first marriages.
Which sentence best describes the divorce rate of remarried people without children?
Have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents
The not-so-empty nest is a phrase that refers to when children ________.
Functionalists note the incest taboo serves to avoid role confusion in families.
Romantic love and its importance in marriage are a cultural universal.
The chances of divorce increase as the level of one's education and income increases.
Couples who cohabit before marriage are less likely to get divorced.
Which of the following statements is not true about cohabitation trends?
With the need for independence and greater opportunity, children are leaving home at an earlier age and less likely to return home after they leave.
They are DINKS.
Mark and Sally are married, both are working, and they chose not to have children. What classification best fits them?
two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption
Sociologically, what is a family?
The term family is difficult to define because of the many varieties of family displayed in the world's cultures.
41 states still limit marriage to men and women.
Karl Marx was an avowed atheist who characterized religion as "the opium of the people."
Next week, Abraham and Hazel will attend the bar mitzvah of their nephew. Their nephew's bar mitzvah is an example of a religious ________.
Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess ________.
Roman Catholic
With 54 million members, which denomination has the highest membership in the United States?
Ecclesia and state religions are the same thing.
Conflict theorists see religion as being the means of social change and an instrument to establish a perfect society.
It is a condensed way for the wearer to say, "I am a follower of Jesus Christ."
From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what does wearing a cross signify for Christians?
"Religion is ... the opium of the people."
Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.
The word church, as used by Durkheim, is synonymous with the concept of a moral community.
It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.
What does the spirit of capitalism refer to, as proposed by Max Weber?
The Protestant ethic
What was Weber's term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?
A state religion is referred to as a(n) ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.
a new or different religion at odds with the dominant culture and religion
Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?
Religion is a matter of faith that is beyond objective evaluation.
Why can't sociologists empirically study religion?
In state religions, the government and religion work together to try to shape society
What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?
Denominations are "brand names" within a major religion.