16 terms

Lecture 39: Reproductive Systems: Female A&P

-Germ cells migrate to the ovary and become oogonia
-Oogonia undergo mitosis (divide) most degenerate (atresia)
-Some develop into primary oocytes and are inactive until puberty
200,000-2mil present at birth
40,000 remain at puberty
400 mature during a woman's life
-Each month hormone release causes several follicles to mature
-Penetration by sperm -> fertilized egg
-No penetration by sperm -> dies
-Composed of ovarian follicles which are sac-like structures
-Each follicle consists of
-Oocyte = mature egg
-Follicular cells = surround the oocyte
Ovarian follicle
-Follicle is basic structural unit in ovary
-Developing follicle contains single maturing oocyte or egg
-Follicle is also primary endocrine tissue in the ovary during the first half of the ovarian cycle when its synthesizes and secretes estradiol
estradiol production
Two-cell model of --- ---:
Both theca and granulosa cells (as well as LH and FSH) are necessary for estradiol synthesis by mature ovarian follicle
Theca Cell
--- --- cannot convert andostenedione to estradiol
Granulosa cell
--- --- cannot convert cholesterol to androstenedione
Ovarian cycle
-Total supply of eggs are present at birth
-Ability to release eggs begins at puberty
-Reproductive ability ends at menopause
-Oocytes are matured in developing ovarian follicles
Cohort of --- recruited to grow:
-Proliferation of granulosa cells
-Theca cells
Antrum formation
--- ---:
-Fluid-filled space
-Growth stimulated by FSH & LH
Mature follicle
--- ---:
Estradiol production requires LH and FSH
Wall of follicle and ovary broken down by proteases, collagenases, and prostaglandins
Follicle ruptures
--- ---:
-Oocyte as just completed first meiotic division
-Ovum released into abdominal cavity
Follicular wall left behind will transform into corpus luteum under influence of LH
Luteal phase
--- ---:
Corpis luteum produces progesterone and estrogen
Histology of the ---:
-Stratum functionalis: shed during menstruation
-Stratum basalis: replaces stratum functionalis each month
-3 layers of smooth muscle
-Visceral peritoneum
Uterine Cycle
--- ---:
-Menses: degeneration and sloughing of endometrium functional zone (menstruation)
-Proliferative phase: regrowth of endometrium
-Secretory phase: endometrial glands secrete mucous in response to progesterone and estrogen to prepare for ovum
-If an ovum does not attach, the layer is sloughed away