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Chpt 2 Biology
Terms in this set (39)
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical substances. Made out of only one type of atom.
The smallest particle of an element that still has the characteristics of that element. The basic unit of matter.
The center of an atom that contains the neutrons and protons.
The small particles that make up atoms—protons, neutrons and electrons.
A subatomic particle with a positive charge.
A subatomic particle with no charge.
A subatomic particle with a negative charge.
Clouds of electrons of different energy levels found around the nucleus.
A substance that is composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined in definite proportions.
A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Atoms of the same element which differ in the number of neutrons contained in their nuclei.
A bond that forms when two atoms share electrons.
An atom that has either lost or gained an electron.
A bond that forms between two ions with opposite charges.
The weak bond that can form between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a nearby slightly negative atom in another molecule.
The making or breaking of chemical bonds.
Law of Conservation of Matter
A natural law, which states that matter is neither created or destroyed during chemical reactions.
A combination of substances in which the individual components maintain their own chemical properties.
A mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent).
Attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Attraction between molecules of different substances.
A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
Any substance that has a pH lower than 7. Acids produce H+ ions.
Any substance that has a pH higher than 7. Bases produce OH- ions.
A substance that reacts with acids and bases to prevent sudden pH changes.
A molecule with unequal sharing of electrons. This causes an unequal distribution of charge.
Compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structures.
A large molecule formed when many smaller molecules (monomers) are joined together.
The building blocks of polymers.
Large, complex molecules. Usually polymers.
Organic macromolecules formed from C, H, and O.
Simple sugars that are the monomers for all carbohydrate polymers.
Two monosaccharides combined with a covalent bond.
A carbohydrate polymer. Many monosaccharides combined to form starch, glycogen or cellulose.
Organic macromolecules with a large proportion of C-H bonds and less O than carbohydrates.
Organic macromolecules that contain C, H, O, N and sometimes S.
The monomers that make up proteins.
The covalent bonds that hold amino acids together in a protein.
A protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction.
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