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Arthritis and Connective Tissue Disorders Key Points
Terms in this set (40)
Inflammation of a joint.
What are the most prevalent types of Arthritis?
Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Gout.
What is Osteoarthritis?
Slowly progressive noninflammatory disorder of the diathrodial synvoial joint.
What are factors linked to OA?
Increasing age, genetics, obesity, occupation with frequent kneeling, and lack of exercise.
What does OA result from?
Cartilage damage, leading to fissuring, fibrilation and erosion of articular surfaces.
What are manifestations of OA?
Mild discomfort to significant disability, with joint pain being the major symptom.
What is not present with OA?
Systemic manifestations: fatigue and fever.
What is treatment for OA?
Managing pain and inflammation, preventing disability and maintaining and improving joint function.
How are symptoms of OA managed?
Medications, joint rest, head and cold, nutrition and exercise.
What happens as OA progresses?
Increasing pain contributes to dsability and loss of function.
What is drug therapy to manage OA based on?
Severity of symptoms.
When is Arthroscopy recommended for OA?
To repair cartilage or remove bone bits or cartilage with progression of OA.
What should teaching for a patient with OA include?
Information about nature and treatment of OA, pain management, posture and body mechanics, use of assistive devices, principles of joint precautions and energy conservations.
What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Chronic systemic disease with inflammation in connective tissue of the diarthrodial synovial joints, often characterized by remissions and exacerbations.
What is the etiology of RA?
Unknown; probably due to autoimmune and genetic factors.
What is the onset of RA insidious with?
Fatigue, weight loss, and genreralized stiffness.
What are articular signs of RA?
Pain, stiffness, limitations of motion, and inflammation. Joint stiffness after periods of inactivity is common.
As RA progresses what articular signs proceed?
Muscle atrophy, destruction of tendons are joints cause articular surface to slipcausing subluxation.
What are most common extraarticular signs of RA?
Sjorens and Felty Syndromes.
How is RA diagnosed?
H & P, lab tests for ESR, CRP, and ANA titers to confirm and monitor disease progression. X rays are not specifically diagnostic.
What is treatment goals for RA?
Reduction of inflammation, management of pain, maintenance of joint function, prevention correction of joint deformity through drug therapy, rest, joint precaution, thermal applications, exercise and teaching.
What is the corner stone of drug treatment for RA?
When is biologic and targeted therapies used for RA?
Moderate to severe disease.
What is Lyme Disease?
Spirochetal infection transmitted by bite of an infected deer tick.
What are symptoms of Lyme DIsease?
Erythema Migrans (EM, a skin lesion occuring at the site of tick bite 2 - 30 days after exposure. Viral like symptoms such as low grade fever, chills, headache, swollen lymph nodes, and migratory joint and muscle pain.
If not treated, how can Lyme disease progress?
TO the heart, joints and CNS.
What is diagnosis of Lyme disease based on?
Clinical manifestations, EM lesion, history of exposure to an endemic area. Two step lab testing process.
What is treatment for Lyme DIsease?
Antibiotics for active disease and prevent late disease.
What is the best way to prevent Lyme Disease?
Reduce exposure to ticks.
What is Gout?
Caused by an increase in uric acid production, underexcretion of uric acid, or increased intake of foods containing purines, which are metabolized to uric acid in the body.
Where do deposits of sodium urate crystals occur?
Articular, periarticular and subcutaneous tissues.
What do deposits of sodium urate crystals lead too?
Acute arthritis attacks.
What are risk factors of Gout?
Obesity in men, hypertension, diuretic use and excessive alcohol consumption.
How many joints appear in the acute phase of Gout?
Dusky or cyanotic, extremely tender and swollen.
What is a common initial problem with acute phase of Gout?
Inflammation of the great toe (Podagra).
How is Chronic Gout characterized?
Multiple joint involvement and visible deposits of sodium urate crystals (tophi).
What is diagnosis for Gout?
No specific tests; H & O.
What is treatment for Acute attack of gout?
Drug therapy for pain management and inflammation.
How are future attacks of Gout Prevented?
Weight reduction, adequate hydration, possible avoidance of alcohol and foods high in purine (red and organ meats).
What is nursing care for Gout?
Supportive care of inflamed joints.
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