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Chapters 22-24

Extracellular fluids have relatively:

high sodium and low potassium ion concentrations.

The ratio of intracellular to extracellular fluids in the body of an average male is:


Which of the following body compartments is correctly matched with its location in the body?

xtracellular-fluid in tissue spaces, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels

When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are:


Alkalosis is a pH of arterial blood

above 7.45

Meiosis is necessary because

otherwise the fertilized ovum will have too much genetic material.

The epithelium of the seminiferous tubules consists of

spermatogenic cells and sustentacular cells.

The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics is


The level of testosterone in the blood is increased by

LH causing the interstitial cells to release testosterone

A Pap smear is used to detect abnormal cells in the


Fertilization normally occurs in the

uterine tube.

Which of the following terms is/are correctly defined?

Ovulation-rupture of an ovarian follicle and release of a secondary oocyte and first polar body
Vestibule-space enclosed by the labia minora
Orgasm-pleasurable sense of physiological and psychological release
All of the above

A mammary gland contains ____ lobes.

fifteen to twenty

Factors that may suggest prostate cancer include

cellular changes observed in a biopsy sample.
elevated PSA level in the blood.
enlargement of the prostate gland.
all of the above.

The cells that result from meiosis are diploid


Each epididymis emerges from the bottom of a testis


An increase in the level of FSH at approximately day 14 causes ovulation.


The development, maintenance, and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems are the functions of:

reproductive hormones

During the female reproductive cycle, menstruation is triggered when:

blood levels of estrogens and progesterone drop.

Within the mammary glands, milk is produced by _____ glands.


Embryonic stem cells are derived from the

inner cell mass of the blastocyst.

The fetus is protected from certain infections, to which the mother is immune, by

antibodies from the mother's immune system.

The hormone measured in a pregnancy test is


A blastomere is a _____ and a blastocyst is _____.

cell produced by cleavage; a hollow ball of cells

The major body part(s) derived from ectoderm is/are

nervous system and skin.

The major body parts derived from endoderm are the epithelial lining of the

digestive tract.
respiratory tract.
urinary bladder.
all of the above.

The major body parts derived from mesoderm are the

muscle tissue, bone tissue, and bone marrow.

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis works because

a cell can be removed from an 8-celled human embryo and the remaining 7 cells can continue developing.

Progesterone in semen stimulates the movement of sperm cells.


Factors that can cause congenital malformations by affecting an embryo during its periods of rapid growth and development are called teratogens.


The ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to bypass the lungs.


Some factors that help to stimulate the newborn's first breath are increasing CO2, decreasing pH, decreasing O2, decreasing body temperature, and mechanical stimulation.


In an adult, a solid, cordlike structure called the ______ ______ represents the former umbilical vein.

ligamentum teres

The process of growing old is called _____.


What term refers to the continuous process by which an individual changes during life?


What chemical stimulates the sperm's tail movement for propulsion through the uterus and uterine tube?


he time from fertilization to birth is called the

prenatal period

and the time after birth is called the

postnatal period

What is the number one leading cause of death in the United States in 2007?

heart disease

aging is the breakdown of structures and slowing of functions.


aging is the appearance of new substances or new activities


Correct Sequence of Embryonic Stages

zygote, morula, blastocyst,embryoblast.

Oogenesis is...

The production of immature oocytes in the ovary.

Which two hormones influence the endometreum to thicken?

Progesterone and estrogen

What stimulates the secondary oocyte to complete meiosis?

When a sperm cell penetrates the oocyte membrane

The secondary oocyte is a haploid?


If fertilization does not occur the corpus luteum becomes a

corpus albicans

Which hormone prevents degeneration of the corpus luteum

Human Chorionic gonadotropin

Gonadotropic releasing hormones is released by the


When does a mature oocyte complete meiosis 1?

Just prior to ovulation

Decreasing levels of _______ lead to sloughing or shedding f the endometrial lining.


Meiosis 2 is identical to mitosis.


The exchange of DNA between adjacent homologous chromatids is known as what?

Crossing Over

How many cekks are formed in meiosis?


During Meiosis, DNA must replicate twice.


differing orientations of chromosomes along the cell equator during meta phase 1, resulting in gametes with different combinations, or parental chromosomes is known as?

Independent assortment

How many chromosomes do daughter cells contain at the end of meiosis?


What is exchanged during crossing over?

Genetic Material

which of the following is not a unique characteristic of meiosis when compared with mitosis?

DNA Replication

How many nuclear divisions occur in Meiosis?


The process of homologous pairing along the length of chromosomes during meiosis is known as what>


During Meiosis, homologous pairs of chromosomes can exchange pieces of DNA after the synapse


Mitosis involves

a single cell division that results in 2 diploid cells

completion of meiosis produces

4 haploid daughter cells

Dna replication occurs prior to both meiosis and mitosis?


The normal chromosome number in a human cell is?


Secondary Female Sex organs

Uterus, uterine tubes, the vagina.

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