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Injury Prevention, Assessment and Management
Terms in this set (30)
What is a direct injury?
A direct injury is caused by an external blow or force. These injuries can be caused by:
- a collision with another person (e.g. tackle, head clash)
- being struck with an object (e.g. cricket ball, hockey stick)
Injuries which can result from external forces include haematoma's ('corks') and bruises, joint and ligament damage, dislocations and bone fracture.
What is an indirect injury?
An indirect injury can occur in two ways:
- The actual injury can occur some distance from the impact site. For example, falling on an outstretched hand can result in a dislocated shoulder.
- The injury does not result from physical contact with an object or person, but from internal forces built up by the actions of the performer, such as may be caused by overstretching, poor technique, fatigue and lack of fitness. Ligament sprains and muscle strains and tears are examples of these injuries.
What is an overuse injury?
An overuse injury can occur when excessive and repetitive force is placed on the bones and other connective tissue in the body.
- A minimal amount of pain is experienced in the early stages, so an athlete continues to put pressure on the injured site, preventing the site being given necessary time to heal. Damage accumulates leading to inflammation and increased pain.
- Symptoms of an overuse injury can occur due to a change in training frequency and intensity (an increase). Poorly planned training programs which do not allow an athlete to recover properly results in overuse injuries.
- Poor technique and poor equipment can be another cause of overuse injury.
- Examples of overuse injuries: stress fractures, tendonitis, 'tennis elbow'(tennis), shin splints (netball) and wrist overuse (badminton).
What is a soft tissue injury?
A soft tissue injury refers to:
- Skin injuries- abrasions, lacerations, blisters
- Muscle injuries- tears or strains of muscle fibres and contusions
- Tendon injuries- tears or strains of tendon fibres and inflammation (tendonitis)
- Ligament injuries- sprains and tears of ligament fibres
What is a hard tissue injury?
Hard-tissue injuries involve damage to the bones of the skeleton. Ranging from severe fractures and joint dislocations to bruising the bone.
What is TOTAPS?
TOTAPS is a method in which a injury can be assessed. Its purpose is to provide information about the extent of an injury and will indicate whether the person should be permitted to continue the game/performance or should be given professional medical help.
A- Active Movement
P- Passive Movement
S- Skills Test
What does the first T stand for in TOTAPS?
Ask the athlete questions to gather information about the cause, nature and site of the injury. For example:
How did the injury happen? Do you have any pins and needles? Where does it hurt? Is the pain sharp or dull? Did you hear any snaps or cracks? On a scale of one to ten...?
What does the O stand for in TOTAPS?
Visually examine the site of the injury. Look for deformity, swelling and redness. Compare the injured area with its corresponding area, if on a limb.
What does the second T stand for in TOTAPS?
Using your hands and fingers, gently touch the site of the injury without moving it. If possible, feel the corresponding site on the other side of the body and compare the two sides. Observe the athletes level of distress as you touch the injury.
What does the A stand for in TOTAPS?
A- Active Movement
Ask the athlete to attempt to move the injured part. Observe the degree of pain. Also observe the extent or range of movement that is achieved by the athlete. Compare with the other limb if possible. As the athlete moves feel for any clicking or grating. If only a minimal range of movement is achieved, the RICER procedure is used.
What does the P stand for in TOTAPS?
P- Passive Movement
If the passive movement stage is reached, it is likely the injury is not serious. A decision needs to be made on whether the athlete should continue to play. This stage requires the first aider to move the athletes injured body part to determine how much pain-free movement is possible. If the athlete cannot have the injured part manipulated through the normal range of movement with pain, the first aider should not continue. RICER treatment should then be used. If the range of movement is normal, the athlete should be asked to stand.
What does the S stand for in TOTAPS?
S- Skills Test
If the athlete can stand, have the person place pressure on the injured site by performing movement similar to those required in the activity to be resumed. If these actions can be completed, the athlete may resume the activity.
What is RICER?
RICER is a process of management of a soft tissue injury. The purpose of it is to:
-prevent further tissue damage
-reduce the formation of scar tissue
-reduce the time needed for rehabilitation
R- Rest, I-Ice, C- Compression, E-Elevate, R-Referral
What does the first R stand for in RICER?
The injured area must remain relatively inactive for the first 48-72 hours. The duration of rest will depend on the severity of the injury. Reduces further damage.
What does the I stand for in RICER?
The application of ice should be done for 20 minutes every 2 hours. This treatment is to be continued for the first 48-72 hours. Ice cools the tissue and reduces pain, swelling and bleeding. Place a cold pack wrapped in a towel onto the injured area. Do not apply the cold pack directly onto the skin to avoid ice burn.
What does the C stand for in RICER?
Apply a wide, elastic bandage covering the injured area as well as the areas above and below. Compression reduces bleeding and swelling. Check that the bandage is not too tight.
What does the E stand for in RICER?
Elevate the injured area to stop bleeding and swelling. Place the injured area on a pillow for comfort and support.
What does the second R stand for in RICER?
Refer the injured person to a qualified professional such as a doctor or physiotherapist for precise diagnosis, ongoing care and treatment. A full recovery is then more likely.
What is HARM?
HARM are the factors which need to be avoided for the first 48-72 hours after the injury.
H- Harm, A- Alcohol, R- Running, M- Massage
What does the H stand for in HARM?
NO HEAT: Heat increases the blood flow and swelling, and can delay your return to normal activities and rehabilitation. Avoid heat can include anything from a hot pack to liniment creams such as 'deep heat' or 'metsal'.
What does the A stand for in HARM?
NO ALCOHOL: Alcohol is a 'vasodilator', this means that the diameter of blood vessels increase and blood flow increases thereby increasing swelling.
What does the R stand for in HARM?
NO RUNNING: Rest the injured part to avoid an increase in blood flow to that area. When we move, the body directs more blood to that area to supply its energy needs.
What does the M stand for in HARM?
NO MASSAGE: Massage is very effective in increasing blood flow. It is impossible to 'rub' out a corky (muscle bruise) in the first 48-72 hours, it will only increase blood flow and delay your progress.
What is Risk Assessment?
1. Identify the hazards
- Hazard: something with the potential to cause harm
2. Decide who may be harmed and how.
3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions.
- Risk: the likelihood of harm resulting from a hazard
4. Record your findings and implement them.
5. Review your assessment and update if necessary.
What is Risk Management?
The analysis of the following factors:
What can happen? How can it happen? What is the likelihood of this event occurring? What would be the consequences if this event occurred? What action needs to be taken? When will this action be complete? Who will complete the action?
- About 1 million Australians injure themselves while playing sport each year, with children ages 5 to 14 years incurring the highest rate of injuries.
-Approximately 50% of the injuries are preventable
- Benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks
- 1/4 of parents prevent their kids being involved in sport due to injury fears.
What is Injury Prevention?
Sports injuries can be prevented by looking at the following three categories:
- The environment of a particular sport
- Fitness levels
- Protective wear
What are the elements of Sports Environment?
A safe environment will reduce the number of potential injuries. The sport environment includes:
Weather, Facilities, Surfaces and Equipment.
Poor, wet or slippery surfaces, lack of goalpost padding or safety netting, obstacles to trip on or sharp objects, can all lead to injury.
What are the elements of fitness?
The four main elements of fitness are:
Stretch, Fluid, Technique & Training and Rehabilitation.
What are the types of protective wear?
Wear the right protective equipment for the sport you are playing. The six main types of protective equipment include:
Eyewear, mouthguards, guards, helmets, tapes and braces.
A failure to screen, or even to perform a screening, which results in client injury may actually increase the likelihood of legal suits and claims based upon negligence.
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