History of Architecture - Vocabulary
ARC318K - Dr. Christopher Long
Terms in this set (160)
a restricted area within the cella of a Greek or Roman temple.
an open "place of assembly" in ancient Greek city-states.
.a lateral division of a Christian church or an ancient roman basilica parallel to the main central space of the nave and separated from in by arches
a processional passageway around a shrine.
a type of ceramic vase with two handles and a long neck narrower than the body.
continuous, semicircular vault in the shape of a ring.
dressing room of the Roman bathes.
vaulted, semicircular or semi-polygonal wall recess or extension of a hall, such as on the short side of an ancient Roman basilica or at the sanctuary end of a Christian church.
a series of arches on columns or piers, either freestanding or attached to a wall.
figures or half figures of men, usually used as columns to support entablatures.
the colonnaded forecourt of a Christian church.
the main inner hall of a Roman house, with an open roof and central basin to catch rainwater.
small posts making up a balustrade.
a railing supported by a series of small posts or balusters.
an artificial body of water which is a common element of the architectural style of the Khmer Empire of Southeast Asia.
a continuous, semicircular vault that extends in a straight line.
in ancient Roman architecture, a large meeting hall, often oblong in plan, with a high central space lit by clerestory windows.
the early form of a Christian church, oblong, with high, clerestoried nave ending in an apse, flanked by two lower aisles, and covered with a timber roof.
a notched parapet on the top of a wall with alternating merlons and cernels for decoration or defense.
basic spatial unit defined by four columns and beams making up a frame of a building.
burial structure characterized by its false dome created by the superposition of successively smaller rings of mudbricks or, more often, stones.
a building which housed the council of citizens (boule) in Ancient Greece.
has a gap at its apex or at its base.
the hot room in ancient Roman bathes.
a bell tower, usually free standing.
square or trapezoidal enclosure for doorways, niches, alcoves, and ground plans.
any rigid structure projecting from a vertical support.
a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head.
an ancient Roman walled military camp with a gridded rectangular layout.
underground system of passages used as a cemetery.
subterranean cells in which wild animals were confined before the combats in the Roman arena or amphitheater.
a hollow molding usually a quarter circle in section.
planned- a ground plan that is central in all directions.
an Indian Buddhist cave temple or shrine carved out of a hillside, aisles, and often richly decorated with sculpture.
part of church where choir sits.
an ancient Roman roofless enclosure, oblong in shape, with one straight end, and with tiers of seats along both sides and at the other end, which was curved. It was used for horse and chariot races and gladiatorial contests.
space where walls rise above the roof line and are pierced by windows.
building material for making walls using compacted clay, sand and straw.
a sunken square of polygonal decorative panel in a ceiling or within an arch.
combines in its capital the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order with eh prominent volutes of the Ionic.
artificial stone made of a mixture of specific proportions of cement, water, and aggregate. Roman concrete is lime, sand, water, and pozzolana.
a pattern of repeated depressed opening in a fortification wall.
Cross in square plan
a Byzantine Church plan based on a square divided into 9 bays. The center bay is a large domed square, the 4 corners bays are small domed or groin vaulted squares, the remaining 4 bays are barrel-vaulted rectangles.
in a church with a cross-shaped plan the space where the arms of the cross intersect.
a dome crowning a roof or turret.
similar to "rubble" masonry. Rough and disorderly compared to "ashlar" masonry.
megalithic tomb usually constructed of two or more upright stones supporting a large, flat lintel.
a convex roof of even curvature on a circular of polygonal base.
"capitol" on top of gong.
a type of dome in which the outer wall is doubled inside by another enclosure.
Chinese bracket system.
entrance passage or avenue leading to a building, tomb or passageway.
a circular or polygonal vertical wall that supports a dome.
the application of a convex curve to a surface for aesthetic purposes. (exs. Roman columns' bulge in the middle; the Parthenon's optical corrections)
a semicircular or rectangular recess, usually with seats or a bench, and sometimes roofed.
outside the main façade of the church, usually part of a colonnaded or arcaded atrium.
a form of vault in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly, in a manner resembling a fan. (ex. King's College Chapel)
an ornament that tops a pinnacle, spire, etc. usually pointed and decorated with stylized foliage.
a public civic and commercial square in ancient Rome. It was usually surrounded by a colonnade and included a basilica and temple.
mural usually painted on wet plaster to ensure longevity.
the room with a cold water pool in ancient Roman baths.
a triangular, usually ornamental, architectural section as one above an arched door or window.
an upper story open on one side to a building's main interior space or to the exterior. In a church, a gallery runs above an aisle and opens onto the nave.
bow shaped arm portion of an ancient Chinese roofing support system.
monumental Hindu temple usually polychromatic.
Greek cross plan
church plan in the form of a Greek cross, with a square central mass and four arms of equal length.
vault formed by the right angle intersection of two barrel vaults of the same shape.
a flat roof that only slopes in one direction.
a nearly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20 meters (65 feet) in diameter that is enclosed by a boundary of earth or stones.
a pitched roof with gable ends that slope back.
an ancient Greek stadium for horse or chariot racing in the form of an oblong with one curved end, 2. An ancient Roman enclosed garden of the same shape.
discovered Machu Picchu, 1911.
an ancient temple with no roof.
an ancient Roman central heating system using hot air ducts in the floor of the building.
controversy over the use of icons such as paintings, sculptures, etc. to worship in the Christian church.
an ancient Roman apartment block.
primary buildings of Machu Picchu.
a large vaulted hall with one end open to a court.
the central wedge-shaped stone in an arch, sometimes decorated.
ancient Cambonian kingdom.
representations of male youths which first appear in the Archaic period in Greece.
cross with longer arm descending, represents crucifixion
extended portico; gallery or room open on one or more sides.
Arabic word for any type of educational institution.
a type of pottery decorated in opaque white glaze with a colored over glaze.
use of Classicism or elements of Classicism to create something poetic.
site that witnessed events in the life of Christ or his followers, or where the relics of a Christian martyr are deposited.
ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with outward sloping sides.
the great hall of the Mycenaean palace complexes.
large upright standing stone.
niche which indicates the direction of Mecca.
tall towers attached to a mosque, or around it, to summon prayers.
Mortise and Tenon
a rectangular cavity (mortise) that receives a rectangular pin (tenon).
interior or exterior transverse vestibule (anteroom to a larger hall) of an early Christian church.
the taller central space lit by the clerestory windows of a roman basilica.
a tall, narrow, four-sided, tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top.
a round window, often in a roof.
bulbous dome with a pointed top.
a multistory Chinese or Japanese tower with elaborately projecting roofs at each story.
an ancient Greek or Roman building for athletic training.
a curving triangular surface at the corners of as square or polygonal room that makes a transition from the room shape to a circular dome.
vaulting form in which the curve of the pendentive and dome is continuous, without a break.
the principle floor.
specific arrangement of architectural elements to frame or create a scene.
vertical support often rectangular or square in plan.
a shallow, flattened, rectangular column or pier attached to a wall and often modeled on an order.
large stone base.
a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizen.
porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.
volcanic ash the romans used to make concrete.
any monumental gateway based on the original Propylaea that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens.
a theater space whose primary feature is a large frame or arch, which is located at or near the front of the stage.
free standing columns in a row, usually in front of a temple
a building with free standing columns along its front and engaged columns along its front and engaged columns along its back and sides.
small elevated platform at front of church.
horizontal beams supporting roof.
gateway to the inner part of an Ancient Egyptian temple.
a hipped roof with four to six sloping sides.
wall which Muslims must face while praying.
an arrangement of five objects with one at each corner of a rectangle or square and one in the middle.
is a geometric pattern consisting of five points, four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center. It forms the arrangement of five units in the pattern corresponding to the five- spot on dice.
a wall facing of stone.
round space with a dome overhead.
The separation of regular masonry blocks by deeply cut, often wedge shaped grooves.
god emperor of the Incas.
an ancient Egyptian tomb structure where a sculpture of the deceased was placed. A single hole or slit allowed the soul of the deceased and smells from the offering to move freely throughout.
tower structure of a Hindu temple.
underside of an eave, lintel or other horizontal element.
the roughly triangular space between the left and the right exterior curves of an arch and the rectangular framework surrounding it.
borrowing pieces of buildings to create new architecture. (exs. Egyptians removing first layer of the pyramids; Romanesque builders relocating capitols)
a supporting wall placed perpendicular to the wall being supported.
a small arch or a series of gradually wider and projecting concentric arches across the interior corners of a square or polygonal room, forming a transition from the room shape to a circular dome or drum above.
covered walkways or porticos, commonly for public usage.
a projecting horizontal band across an exterior wall of a building.
a Buddhist memorial mound that enshrines relics or marks a sacred site.
in an ancient Roman house, a room with one side open to the central courtyard or atrium.
thick straw mat used for covering the floor in Japanese houses.
the moderately warm room in ancient Roman bathes.
hard, molded, and fired clay used for ornamental wall covering, or roof of floor tile.
see "Beehive Chamber".
one set of early Christian churches built around the edges of Rome
civilization taken over by the Aztecs.
Indian gateway marking the entrance to a stupa.
gateway to a Shinto Temple consisting of two up right pieces supporting a concave crosspiece with projecting ends with a straight crosspiece beneath it.
the transverse arms of a cross-shaped church, crossing the main axis at a right angle.
form of arch which runs from one side of a vault to another, separating its bays.
an arcaded gallery within the thickness of inner wall, which stands above the nave in a church or cathedral. Usually below clerestory windows.
two large piers supporting a lintel often arranged in a henge. (ex. Stonehenge)
rigid framework to support roof.
similar to the Doric, but it has a base and the column shaft is unfluted.
Indian geometric architecture.
an arched ceiling or roof.
an anteroom to the larger hall.
an Indian Buddhist monastery.
a wedge shaped block that is one of the units in and arch or vault.
second transept on the west end of a Carolingian or Romanesque church.
massive monuments built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau in the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. (ex. Great Ziggurat or Ur)