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Astronomy unit 1 pt 2
Terms in this set (50)
The principal culture that transferred Greek astronomical knowledge to Renaissance Europe
The most accurate Greek attempt to explain planetary motion was the model of:
The Ptolemaic model probably persisted for all these reasons EXCEPT:
it accounted well for Galileo's observations of the phase cycle of Venus.
The greatest contribution of the Greeks to modern thought was:
the development of scientific inquiry and model building.
The Ptolemaic model of the universe:
explained and predicted the motions of the planets with deferents and epicycles.
Scientists today do not accept the Ptolemaic model because:
the work of Tycho and Kepler showed the heliocentric model was more accurate.
On which of these assumptions do Ptolemy and Copernicus agree?
All orbits must be perfect circles.
The heliocentric model was actually first proposed by:
9) According to Copernicus, the retrograde motion for Mars must occur
E) at opposition, when the earth overtakes Mars and passes between Mars and the Sun.
Which was a contribution to astronomy made by Copernicus?
He laid out the order and relative motion of the known solar system.
Which of these was NOT a part of the original Copernican model?
Mercury speeds up at perihelion, and slows down at aphelion.
Which of the statements below is part of both the Ptolemaic and Copernican models?
The Moon orbits the Earth once a month.
Which of these was NOT seen telescopically by Galileo?
Which of the following was NOT a contribution of Galileo to astronomy?
The changing appearance of Saturn's rings corresponds to our seasons.
Which of the following is a contribution to astronomy made by Galileo?
all of the above
Which of these observations of Galileo refuted Ptolemy's epicycles?
the complete cycle of Venus' phases
Which of these was NOT a telescopic discovery of Galileo?
the moons of Saturn
A fatal flaw with Ptolemy's model is its inability to predict the observed phases of
Mercury and Venus.
It took two centuries for the Copernican model to replaced the Ptolemaic model because
there was no scientific evidence to support either model until Galileo made his
Galileo found the rotation period of the Sun was approximately
Kepler's first law worked, where Copernicus' original heliocentric model failed, because
Kepler described the orbits as
elliptical, not circular.
Tycho Brahe's contribution to Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion were
his detailed and accurate observations of the planet's position.
The most famous prehistoric astronomical observatory is:
A circular orbit would have an eccentricity of
Upon which point do Copernicus and Kepler disagree?
The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with one focus at the Sun.
What contribution to astronomy was made by Tycho Brahe?
His observations of planetary motion with great accuracy proved circular orbits could
Which concept was NOT a part of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion?
Epicycles are needed to explain the varying brightnesses of the planets.
According to Kepler's third law, the square of the planet's period in years is:
proportional to the cube of its semimajor axis in A.U.
What does Kepler's third law imply about planetary motion?
Planets further from the Sun orbit at a slower speed than planets closer to the Sun.
A planet whose distance from the Sun is 3 A.U. would have an orbital period of how many
The place in a planet's orbit that is closest to the Sun is called
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, attempts to precisely measure the
astronomical unit relied largely on rare:
transits of the inferior planets across the Sun.
Today we rely largely on what technique to precisely measure distances in the solar system?
radar echo timings
The force of gravity varies with the
Both A and C are correct.product of the two masses.inverse square of the distance separating the two bodies.
The Law of Universal Gravitation was developed by:
The force of gravity between two objects:
increases with the masses of the bodies, but decreases with the square of the distances
According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, if the Moon were three times further
from Earth, the force by Earth on the Moon would
decrease by a factor of 9.
How much stronger is the gravitational pull of the Sun on Earth, at 1 AU, than it is on Saturn
at 10 AU?
Which of these was a contribution of Newton to astronomy?
All of these were due to Newton's work.
Geosynchronous satellites orbit at about four earth radii, where the earth's gravitational pull
Jupiter lies about 5 A.U. from the Sun, so at its distance:
the Sun's gravity is 25 times weaker than its pull on the Earth.
How does Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation explain Kepler's laws?
E) Both C and D are correct.
Given that the planet orbiting the nearby star 51 Pegasi is about 20X larger than the Earth,
but 400X more massive, on that world you would weigh:
the same as you do here.
If the distance between two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force they exert on each
also be doubled.
Compared to orbital velocity, escape velocity is about:
Orbital speed is the speed with which a planet moves around the Sun. This speed is
the mass of both the planet and the Sun and the distance between the two.
47) Escape velocity is the speed required to
overcome the graviational pull of an object.
According to Copernicus, retrograde motion for Venus must occur around
A) inferior conjunction, when it passes between us and the Sun.
Combining Newton's and Kepler's laws, we can weigh the Sun, provided we
the size of the A.U. and exact length of the year.
50) Kepler's second law implies what about planetary motion?
A planet moves faster when it is closer to the Sun.
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