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AP Euro Chapter 1 (Late Middle Ages)
Terms in this set (47)
Why the Black Death spread
Overpopulation and malnutrition; poor grasp of bacteria and how it spreads, lack of clean living conditions (1346-1353)
Economic consequences of Black Death
Laborers demand higher wages, nobles lose money. Artisans paid more and peasant revolts.
Political consequences of Black Death
Formation of guilds; kings take advantage of weakened nobles and church -- monarchs gain more centralized, secular power
Hundred Years War
1337-1453, 3 phases of fighting
1st Phase of Hundred Years War
Edward III claimed French throne and Flanders allied with English. England takes Calais, French king captured, 1360 Treaty (French king returned)
2nd Phase of Hundred Years War
Treaty of Troyes, Duchy of Burgundy joins English side, English peasant revolts
Treaty of Troyes
1420- Made Henry V (English) successor to French king, Charles VI. (Basically made it so all French lands would become ruled by English king)
3rd Phase of Hundred Years War
Joan of Arc presented herself to French King Charles VII and claimed God sent her to save Orleans from English siege. Orleans was saved and many French victories occurred after that. France won the Hundred Years War.
Peace of Brtigny-Calais
1360- Edward III gives up French crown but demands all French territory he had taken.
Conclusion of Hundred Years War
France devastated, national feelings in England and France strengthened, peasants suffer on both sides
Causes of Hundred Years War
English king Edward III claimed French throne after French king died w/ no heir. High tensions between France and England for years before war. Land disputes.
-Wealthier, bigger, on own soil
-internal disunity/social conflict (feudal to modern state)
Council of townspeople, clergy, and nobles in France (gained power
1358- French peasant revolt against nobles increasing taxes
Pope Innocent III
Strengthened church politically but not spiritually (around 1200)
Boniface VIII vs. Philip the Fair
1. Taxes decreed on clergy- Boniface negates them (need papal consent to tax clergy)
2. French King Philip cuts off money to Rome
3. Boniface concedes
1302- Boniface stated churches were superior to kings/state.
-French assault Boniface, who later dies
**popes never again threaten kings' power
Pope Clement V moved papal court to Avignon, France (Rome got pissed). French now have more influence over church than Italians. Rome stops sending money to church
Church needs revenue in Avignon, so it starts
-taxes the people more "in the name of the lord"
John Wycliffe and John Huss
Against how the church was being run; started to incite other ideas about how the church should be managed
Pope John XXII
-most powerful Avignon pope
-tried to move church back to Rome (Gregory actaully moved it)
Followers of John Wycliffe
-favored state over pope/church
-precursors to PROTESTANTISM
Followers of John Huss
-University of Prague
-Questioned Eucharist teachings
-Urban VI elected Pope by Romans (supported by English)
-Clement VII elected by French cardinals
Idea that councils should regulate pope's actions and make church decisions, which popes HATED
Council of Pisa
1409- attempted to fix Schism by deposing two existing popes and instating Alexander V (failed, now there were 3 popes)
Council of Constance
1414- new pope supremely elected: Martin V.
*then-Roman pope (Gregory) and then-French pope step down
DECREE: Council of Constance asserts its power, elects Martin V, and declares it will continue to meet in councils
Council of Basel
-church negotiated with heretics (Hussites)
-pope angered; council collapses
-decree by pope stating councils were not stronger than papal authority; Council of Basel collapses
Results of Conciliar Movement
1. Less centralized church power
2. laity and secular gov't gain more power
political and cultural center of Russia before Mongol rule
3 Categories of Russians
1. Great Russians
2. White Russians
3. Little Russians (Ukrainians)
In Russia, class division was between
freemen and slaves
Mongol Rule in Russia
-Ghengis Khan invades Russia, 1223
-Russian cities turn into principalities (pay money to Mongol rulers)
-women taken as concubines, men taken into army
Results of Mongol rule in Russia
-belated development (100 years)
-cut off from Western civilization
-partial Islamization of Russian society
Ivan the Great
defeated Mongols by embezzling money and building an army to drive them out (1380)
became even stronger than Kiev
"3rd Roman Empire"
How did French and English unity develop during Hundred Years War?
French- Joan of Arc led to victory
English- Magna Carta (gave rights to the people)
How did the secular rulers challenge papal authority in the 14th and 15th centuries?
Edward I (English king) and Philip the Fair (French king) cut off funds to Rome and silenced clergy in courts when pope Boniface said clergy could not be taxed
Statute of Laborers
Parliament froze English laborers' wages, causing them to revolt (similar rebellions occurred in France - Jacquerie)
Quarrel between Boniface and Philip?
Philip wanted to tax clergy, Boniface said no.
Philip cut off funds, Boniface stopped churches.
Philip had Boniface beaten (in response to Unam Sanctum), Boniface died.
How Church changed from 1200 to 1450?
-Became more political
-moved to Avignon and back
-less power after Boniface
How did kings control the papacy in 13th and 14th centuries?
Kings could control church revenue and send people to beat up the pope. Church became lesser than secular government.
John Ball and Wat Tyler
led English peasant revolt in 1381
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