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30 terms

Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Which statement about vitamins is true?
A) Cannot be stored by the body
B) Are inorganic
C) Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
D) Directly supply energy
C
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
A) Water-soluble vitamins are stored, whereas fat-soluble vitamins are excreted readily.
B) Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic.
C) Fat-soluble vitamins have much less potential for toxicity.
D) Water-soluble vitamins are best absorbed in the presence of dietary fat.
B
If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be
A) a doughnut made with enriched white flour.
B) apple juice.
C) a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.
D) a banana.
C
Megadoses are defined as vitamin intake ________ times the estimated human need to prevent a deficiency.
A) 1 to 3
B) 3 to 5
C) 2 to 10
D) 50
C
Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?
A) They enter the bloodstream directly after absorption.
B) Fat in the digestive contents is not important for their absorption.
C) They are not stored to any great extent.
D) After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.
D
Which fat soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts over long periods of time?
A) Vitamins D and K
B) Vitamins A and E
C) Vitamins A and D
D) Vitamins E and K
B
Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?
A) Retinoids are found in plant foods.
B) Carotenoids are found in animal foods.
C) Carotenoids can be converted to retinoids.
D) Retinoids are converted to carotenoids.
C
Which of the following vitamins has been helpful in large doses as a treatment for acne?
A) C
B) D
C) A
D) E
C
Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A?
A) Broccoli
B) Pork chop
C) Chicken breast
D) Liver
D
Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?
A) Retinol
B) Carotenoids
C) Cholesterol
D) Phenylalanine
B
All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except
A) one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene.
B) fetal malformation can occur.
C) one is unlikely to get toxic doses from eating food.
D) most adverse effects disappear after megadoses stop.
A
Vitamin E functions as a(n)
A) coenzyme.
B) antioxidant.
C) hormone.
D) enzyme.
B
The main form of vitamin E in the body is
A) alpha-tocopherol.
B) gamma-tocopherol.
C) beta-tocopherol.
D) delta-tocopherol.
A
A rich source of vitamin E is
A) an orange.
B) a chicken breast.
C) corn oil.
D) prime rib.
C
The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin
A) A.
B) C.
C) K.
D) E.
C
In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
A) kidneys.
B) intestine.
C) lungs.
D) liver.
A
The B vitamins generally function as
A) antioxidants.
B) coenzymes.
C) emulsifiers.
D) reducing agents.
B
Some niacin is formed in the body from
A) phenylalanine.
B) tyrosine.
C) tryptophan.
D) lysine.
C
Intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs.
A) Folate
B) Vitamin B6
C) Pantothenic acid
D) Biotin
D
What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism?
A) Thiamin
B) Pyridoxine
C) Riboflavin
D) Niacin
B
Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are
A) folate and thiamin.
B) thiamin and niacin.
C) vitamin B12 and folate.
D) folate and pantothenic acid.
C
Generally, good folate sources are
A) fruits.
B) green leafy vegetables.
C) milk and dairy products.
D) poultry.
B
The best option in ensuring an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is
A) a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals.
B) fortified foods.
C) a multivitamin and mineral supplement.
D) individual nutrient supplements.
A
Mature red blood cells
Erythrocytes
Pigment materials in fruits and vegetables that can be turned into vitamin A in the body
Carotenoids
disorder that results from lack of vitamin B12 absorption
pernicious anemia
Anemia characterized by the presence of abnormally large red blood cells
macrocytic anemia
Destruction of red blood cells
hemolysis
Disease characterized by poor mineralization of newly synthesized bones due to low calcium content and caused by vitamin D deficiency
rickets
General loss or decrease in mental function
dementia