70 terms

Memory | IB Psychology

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memory
cognitive process defined as the capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information
encoding
the process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory
storage
the process of retaining information in memory
retrieval
the process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information stored in memory
retrieval cues
stand alone associations to the original learning that facilitate the retrieval of memories
encoding specificity principle
the belief that retrieval will be more successful when cues available during recall are similar to those present when the material was first committed to memory
context-dependent memory effect
the tendency for information to be better recalled in the same context in which it was originally learned
state-dependent memory effect
the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the psychological or physiological state as when the information was first learned
three-stage model
a model of memory that posits three distinct stages of memory: sensory memory: short-term memory, and long-term memory
sensory memory
the storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a very short time
sensory register
a temporary storage device for holding sensory memories
iconic memory
a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a visual image for a fraction of a second
eidetic memory
a lingering mental representation of a visual image. commonly called photographic memory.
echoic memory
a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a sound for a few seconds after it registers in the ears
short-term memory (STM)
the memory subsystem that allows for retention and processing of newly acquired information for a maximum of about thirty seconds. also called working memory.
chunking
the process of enhancing retention of a large amount of information by breaking it down into smaller, more easily recalled chunks
maintenance rehearsal
the process extending retention of information held in short-term memory by consciously repeating the information
phonological loop
the speech-based part of working memory that allows for the verbal rehearsal of sounds or words
visuospatial sketchpad
the storage buffer for visual-spatial material held in short-term memory
central executive
the component of working memory responsible for coordinating the other subsystems, receiving, and processing stored information, and filtering out distracting thoughts
long-term memory (LTM)
the memory subsystem responsible for long-term storage of information
consolidation
the process of converting short-term memories into long-term memories
elaborative rehearsal
the process of transferring information from short-term to long-term memory by consciously focusing on the meaning of the information
semantic network model
a representation of the organizational structure of long-term memory in terms of a network of associated concepts
levels-of-processing theory
the belief that how well or how long information is remembered depends on the depth of encoding or processing
declarative memory
memory of facts and personal information that requires a conscious effort to bring to mind (also called explicit memory)
semantic memory
memory of facts
episodic memory
memory of personal experiences
retrospective memory
memory of past experiences or events and previously acquired information
prospective memory
memory of things that one plans to do in the future
procedural memory
memory of how to do things that require motor or performance skills
implicit memory
memory accessed without conscious effort
explicit memory
memory accessed through conscious effort
priming task
an experimental task in which subjects are presented with a stimulus that primes them to respond in a certain way to subsequent stimuli
constructionist theory
a theory that holds that memory is not a replica of the past but, rather, a representation or reconstruction of the past
memory schema
an organized knowledge structure, such as a set of beliefs, that reflect one's past experiences, expectancies, and knowledge about the world
flashbulb memories
enduring memories of emotionally charged events that seem permanently seared into the brain
misinformation effect
a form of memory distortion that affects eyewitness testimony and that is caused by misinformation provided during the retention interval
decay theory
a theory of forgetting that posits that memories consist of traces laid down in the brain that gradually deteriorate and fade away over time. also called trace theory
savings method
a method of testing memory retention by comparing the numbers of trials needed to learn material with the number of trials needed to relearn the material at a later time
massed vs. spaced practice effect
the tendency for retention of learned material to be greater with spaced practice than with massed practice
interference theory
the belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of memories with each other
retroactive interference
a form of interference in which newly acquired information interferes with retention of material learned earlier
proactive interference
a form of interference in which material learned earlier interferes with retention of newly acquired information
overlearning
practice repeated beyond the point necessary to reproduce material without error
serial position effect
the tendency to recall items at the start or end of a list better than items in the middle of the list
primacy effect
the tendency to recall items better when they are learned first
recency effect
the tendency to recall items better when they are learned last
retrieval theory
the belief that forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon
an experience in which people are sure they know something but can't seem to bring it to mind
repression
in Freudian theory, a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety-evoking material
recall task
a method of measuring memory retention that requires the reproduction of information held in memory
free recall
a type of recall task in which individuals are asked to recall as many stored items as possible in any order
serial recall
a type of recall task in which individuals are asked to recall a series of items or numbers in a particular order, such as a telephone number
paired-associates recall
a type of recall in which individuals first memorize pairs of items and are then shown one item in the pair and asked to recall the matching item
recognition task
a method of measuring memory retention that assesses the ability to select the correct answer from among a range of alternative answers
amnesia
loss of memory
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory of past events
anterograde amnesia
loss or impairment of the ability to form or store new memories
childhood amnesia
the normal occurrence of amnesia for events occurring during infancy and early childhood
dissociative amnesia
a psychologically based form of amnesia involving the "splitting off" from memory or traumatic or troubling experiences
engram
Lashley's term for the physical trace or etching of a memory in the brain
neuronal networks
memory circuits in the brain that consist of complicated networks of nerve cells
long-term potentiation (LTP)
the long-term strengthening of neural connections as the result of repeated stimulation
mnemonic
a device for improving memory
method of loci
a mnemonic based on linking items to be remembered with objects in familiar locations. also called the method of places.
Elizabeth Loftus
Elizabeth F. Loftus is an American cognitive psychologist and expert on human memory. She has conducted extensive research on the malleability of human memory.
Eric Kandel
Eric Richard Kandel is an Austrian-American neuropsychiatrist. He was a recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons.
Karl Lashley
cerebral location of learning and discrimination
episodic buffer
temporarily holds several sources of information active at the same time, while you consider what is needed in the present situation