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Oceanography and Limnology Chapter 2 and 4 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (77)
the process by which water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere by evaporation from the soil and other surfaces and by transpiration from plants.
the process of turning from liquid to vapor
rain. snow, sleet that falls to the ground
when rain hits saturated or impervious ground, it begins to flow overland downhill.
is the process by which groundwater on the surface enters the soil. Rate decreases as saturation increases
a body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater.
an area of a watershed where all precipitation that falls will drain or flow downhill into a specific stream.
an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, and seas.
Running or flowing water systems; rivers and streams.
Standing water systems such as lakes, ponds, or bogs.
streams that have no tributaries flowing into them
Wastewater (treated or untreated) that ows out of a treatment plant or industrial out- fall and into a water body.
The upper level of groundwater.
are the shallow portions of a stream characterized by relatively fast-moving, turbulent water with bottom materials composed of cobble, gravel, or bedrock
is an area where the flow is characterized by a slow-moving, non turbulent flow
is a relatively shallow portion of a stream characterized by relatively fast-moving non turbulent flow
relatively deep and wide with slow moving water compared to riffle, run, or glide
an area adjacent to and along a stream or river, which is often vegetated, and which constitutes a buffer zone between nearby lands and the river or strea, the area is considered to be important in controlling sediment and nutrient delivery into the channel. It generally includes the area of the stream bank and out onto the floodplain that is periodically inundated by the flood waters from the stream. The limit of the zone depends on many factors, including native plant community makeup, soil moisture levels, and distance from the stream (or the limit of interaction between land and stream processes). Interaction between this terrestrial zone and the stream is vital for the health of the stream
minute organisms that float in the surface film of water.
aquatic animals that are able to swim and move independently of water currents
freshwater organisms attached to or clinging to plants and other objects projecting above the bottom sediments.
The warmer oxygen-rich region of a lake or reservoir that extends from the surface to the thermocline
The total mass or weight of a given population of plant or animal.
An interlocking pattern of several to many food chains.
a steep-sided gully cut by running water in an arid or semiarid region.
water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.
A stream that receives water emerging from a submerged spring or other grow seepage which adds to its overall flow
disappearing stream or influent stream, is a stream or river that loses water as it flows downstream
Lakes that are formed by meanders in rivers that flow over flood plains and low valleys are
a dry, vegetation-free, flat area at the lowest part of an undrained desert basin. It is a location where ephemeral lakes form during wet periods, and is underlain by stratified clay, silt, and sand, and commonly, soluble salts
One turnover per year.
mix from the surface to bottom twice a year
Colder water usually in the form of ice lies over warmer water during the winter.
The middle layer is characterized by steep and rapid declines in temperature, contains thermocline is found in the zone. Rapid temperature decreases at 1 degree Celsius per each meter of depth
The cold, oxygen-poor region of a lake or reservoir that extends from the thermocline to the bottom, and is not influenced by surface conditions
Natural aging process of lakes and ponds
A component that makes up a food chain with plants (primary producers) making up the first trophic level, or base of the food chain.
is the process where plants absorb water through the roots and then give off water vapor through pores in their leaves
Water Cycle/Hydrologic Cycle
begins with the evaporation of water from the ocean. Then, water vapor condenses to form clouds. Eventually, precipitation will makes its way down to the ground.
headwater streams, no tributaries
first order tributaries
second order tributaries
streams and rivers that flow year-round.
streams and rivers that become dry for a period of a week or longer each year.
streams that regularly exist for only a short period of time.
Is the result of an aquifer being filled to the point that it overflows onto the land surface.
Is the outer bank where flow velocities and bank erosion are high.
inner bank of a stream where velocity is at a minimum
are currents that move in a direction other than downstream, usually in a circular motion
basically transition zones between water and land
seasonal or permanent shallow water originating from surface water run offs
areas characterized by very wet soils during the growing season and standing water during certain times of the year
characterized by floaty, spongy peat deposits covered by a thick layer of sphagnum moss with evergreen trees
groundwater fed, peak forming wet lands that are covered by grasses, sedges, and reeds with willow and birch trees. Fens, more alkaline than bogs, are typically found in the northern US.
Area of shallow water where light penetrates to the bottom, allowing for rooted plant growth (lake or pond)
the open water of a pond, lake or bog that is too deep for rooted plants, but with enough light penetration for photosynthetic activity
an organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.
Animal that feeds on decaying organic matter.
a carnivore at the topmost level in a food chain that feeds on other carnivores.
Feeding on both plant and animal substances.
an aquatic organism that feeds on planktonic food, including zooplankton and phytoplankton.
organisms that feed on invertebrates
feed on the primary consumers. In the aquatic environment, secondary consumers are generally invertivores
An animal that feeds on plants
zooplankton and certain aquatic invertebrates and some fish—feed on the primary producers
organism that rely of organism matter as a course of food.
the dependence of organism upon others in a series for food. The chain begins with producers (plants) and ends with the largest of the consumers (carnivores)
decaying organic matter
Exchange of carbon dioxide with oxygen by plants or animals
The manufacture by plants of carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll using sunlight as an energy source
Self - nourishing organisms; green plants and forms of bacteria that do not require organic carbon or nitrogen and produce their own food out of inorganic salts, carbon dioxide, and energy
Life forms at lowest level of food chain comprised of green plants also referred to as trophic level
Rooted plants with almost all leaves below the water surface (for example, alligator weed, hydrilla, or elodea).
not settled in a definite place; fluctuating or variable.
rooted plants growing near the shore with lower portion submerged and upper portions above the surface (cattails, bulrush, sedges)
deep, bottom-water area of little or no light penetration. Fine bottom sediments consist of fine sand, silt, and clay mixed with organic matter.
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