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Cognitive Psychology, Goldstein, Ch. 12, Problem Solving
Terms in this set (37)
Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal, and the solution to get around the obstacle is not immediately obvious.
Usually has a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied correctly, will lead to a solution.
Occur frequently in everyday life; do not necessarily have one "correct" answer, and the path to their solution is often unclear.
Gestalt Psychologists and Problem Solving
These researchers saw problem solving as 1. how people represent a problem in their mind and 2. how solving a problem involves a reorganization or restructuring of this representation.
The process of changing a problem's representation. According to the Gestalt psychologist, restructuring is the key mechanism of problem solving.
The sudden realization of a problem's solution. An "Aha!" experience. No idea when you are close to figuring out the solution.
Move only 3 dots to turn the triangle upside down: move the corner dots. Demonstrates insight.
Four pieces of chain and only has 15 cents to loop them together: unchain one whole link and use it to connect the other three small chains. Demonstrates insight.
People's tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution.
Restricting the use of an object to its familiar functions.
The Candle Problem
Mount a candle on the corkboard so it will burn without dripping wax on the floor: use the box holding the matches and thumbtack it onto the board. Demonstrates functional fixedness.
Two String Problem
Attach two strings together that are too far apart to be reached at the same time: use the pliers as a weight to swing the string.
A preconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determined by a person's experience or what has worked in the past.
Water Jug Problem
Use jugs to measure out a specific quantity of water: do not use faster way to calculate because the previous more complicated way has worked in the past. Demonstrates mental set.
Information-Processing Approach to Problem Solving
Problem solving as a search that occurs between the posing of the problem and its solution.
The conditions at the beginning of a problem in problem solving.
The condition that occurs when a problem has been solved in problem solving.
Tower of Hanoi Problem
A problem involving moving discs from one set of pegs to another. It is used to illustrate the process involved in means-end analysis.
Permissible moves that can be made toward a problem's solution in problem solving.
The various conditions that exist along the pathways between the initial and goal states in problem solving.
The initial state, goal state, and all the possible intermediate states for a particular problem.
A problem-solving strategy that seeks to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states. The achieved by creating subgoals, intermediate states that are closer to the goal.
A problem involving acrobats that is similar to the Tower of Hanoi problem. Used to illustrate the way a problem is stated can influence its difficulty (reverse acrobat problem).
Mutilated Checkerboard Problem
Two red corner squares removed from checkerboard: can't cover the remaining squares with 31 dominoes. Demonstrates how the way a problem is stated can influence its difficulty (red/black, bread/butter, russian match maker)
A procedure in which participants are asked to say out lod what they are thinking while doing a problem. This procedure is used to help determine people's thought processes as they are solving a problem.
Making a comparison in order to show a similarity between two different things (mutilated checkerboard problem and Russian marriage problem)
Analogical Problem Solving
The use of analogies as an aid to solving problems. Typically, a solution to one problem, the source problem, is presented that is analogous to the solution to anther problem, the target problem.
Using problem solving strategies found to be successful in solving one problem to the solution of another, similar problem. (Russian marriage problem and mutilated checkerboard problem)
A problem to be solved. In analogical problem solving, solution of this problem can become easier when the problem solver is exposed to an analogous source problem or story.
Source Problem (Story)
A problem or story that is analogous to the target problem and which therefore provides information that can lead to a solution to the target problem.
A problem posed by Duncker that involves finding a way to destroy a tumor by radiation without damaging other organs in the body. Used to study the role of analogy in problem solving. (Fortress story analogy)
First Step of Analogical Problem Solving
Noticing that there is an analogous relationship between the source story and the target problem.
Second Step of Analogical Problem Solving
Mapping the correspondence between the source story and the target problem.
Third Step of Analogical Problem Solving
Applying the mapping to generate a parallel solution to the target problem.
Specific elements that make up a problem. In the radiation problem, the rays and the tumor are an example of this.
The underlying principle of a problem. For example, in the radiation problem, needing high intensity to fix something surrounded by material that could be damaged by high intensity. Contrast with surface features.
A technique in which people compare two problems that illustrate a principle. This technique is designed to help people discover similar structural features of cases or problems.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Psyc 209, Cognitive Psychology, Goldstein, Stelma,…
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