AP Euro - Reformation in Europe

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Martin Luther
- German Theologian
- 95 Theses (1517)
- Against Indulgences
- Argued For Direct Connection To God Via Scripture
- Opposed Political Dissent
- Opposed German Peasant's War (1525)
- Beliefs Primarily Centered in Central and Eastern Europe and Scandinavia
Lutheranism
- Branch of Protestantism Founded on Martin Luther's Teachings
- Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe
John Calvin
- Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
- Genevan Consistory
- Predestination
- Supported Political Dissent
- Reform Church
-
Similarities B/twn Calvinism & Lutheranism
- Both Preached Scriptural Reading As Primary Road To Connecting To God
Differences B/twn Calvinism & Lutheranism
- Calvinism Supported Political Dissent; Lutheranism Did Not
- Calvinism Preached Predestination; Lutheranism Did Not
- Lutheran Ideas Spread To One Distinct Region of Europe; Calvinism Spread To Various Regions & Was Often Tied To Political Discontent
Reasons for the Reformation
- People Heavily Invested in Religion (Integral Part Of Their Daily Lives)
- Ignorance and Corruption in the Church (Indulgences, Pluralism, Clerical Exemption From Taxation)
- History of Dissent in Europe
Ulrich Zwingli
- Swiss Protestant Leader and Thinker (Zurich)
- Agreed With Many Of Luther's Ideas
- Disagreed with Luther on Specifics of Eucharist
Protestantism
- Generally Believed Similar Things: Faith and Scripture Were Only Way To Salvation
- Disagreed About Role of Eucharist (Lutherans - Christ Was "In" The Eucharist, Zwingli - Christ Was Symbolized By Eucharistic Celebration)
German Peasant's Revolt
- Central Holy Roman Empire (1525)
- Aggravated by Crop Failures in 1523 & 1524
- Over 70,000 Peasants Killed By Noble Response
Protestantism & Marraige
- Protestants Saw Marriage As A Sacred Responsibility
- Did Not See Celibacy As Natural (Opposed Celibate Clergy)
- Believed Women Were Subject To Men In Marital Relationships
- Supported Divorce As A Means Of Fixing Extreme Marital Problems
Protestantism & Women
- Convents Were Closed By Protestants
- Condemned Prostitution Due To Belief That Marriage Was The Only Pious Solution For Sexual Lust
- Women's Roles Came To Be Seen As Primarily Related To Marriage
Charles V & Habsburg Rule
- Charles V (1519 - 1556) Inherited Both Spain & Territories W/in the Holy Roman Empire
- Elected Holy Roman Emperor In 1519
- Oversaw Spanish Empire In New World
- Strongly Catholic
Peace of Augsburg
- Ended 16th Century Religious Wars In Germany (1555)
- "Whose Realm, His Religion"
- Resulted in Religious Refugees Throughout Germany
Henry VIII
- Tudor King
- King of England Responsible for Founding of Anglican Church (1534)
- Dissolved English Monasteries & Confiscated Church Land
- Enforced Adoption of Anglicanism In Largely Catholic Ireland
Elizabeth I
- Henry VIII's Daughter From Anne Boleyn
- Protestant But Ruled Moderately In Terms Of Religion
- Oversaw English Victory Over Spanish Armada (1588)
- Major Contribution Was Helping To End Large Scale Religious Disunity In England
Protestantism In Eastern Europe
- Protestant Ideas Spread Intermittently To Eastern Europe
- Many Regions Resisted Protestant Influence Out Of Strong Anti-German Sentiment
- Lutherans, Calvinists, & Other Groups Had Trouble Unifying In Places Like Poland (Poland Remained Strongly Catholic)
Council of Trent
- 1545 to 1563
- Called By Pope Paul III To Reform Church
- Reaffirmed The 7 Sacraments
- Gave Equal Validity to Scripture & Church Rulings
- Tried To Improve Corruption Issues
- Decreed Marriage To Be A Publicly Held Event (Ended Tradition of Secret Marriages)
Society of Jesus
- Jesuits
- Founded in 1540 by Ignatius Loyola
- Goal: "To Help Souls"
- Special Obedience To Pope
- Hierarchical
- Responsible For Missionary Activity That Brought Large Parts of Europe Back To Catholicism (Also, Brazil, Japan, & Congo)
St Bartholomew's Day Massacre
- 1572 (Paris)
- Sparked Wave Of Religious Wars In France
- Thousands Killed
Huguenots
- French Calvinists
- Numbered Approx 2 Million in 1562 (Out Of A Total French Population Of Approx 19 Million)
Henry IV (Navarre)
- King of France (1589 - 1610)
- Politique
- Born Catholic, Raised Protestant, Confirmed Catholic After Assuming French Throne
- Distrusted By Catholics (Fought War Against Catholic League)
- Traitorous To Protestants
- Survived 12 Assassination Attempts (Died By Assassination in 1610)
- Known Posthumously As "Good King Henry"
- Issued Edict of Nantes
Erasmus
Christian Humanist who criticized the church, as well as Luther. Laid the egg that Luther hatched.
Anabaptists
Protestants who were largely hated by everyone. Believed in separation of church and state
Philip Melanchthon
Luther's colleague, a Christian Humanist who helped set up schools in newly Lutheran states
Peace of Augsburg
Ended religious wars in Holy Roman Empire. Allowed Princes to decided between Catholicism and Lutheranism (not Calvinism)
Protestant reform group in Netherlands, Scotland, parts of France and England (Puritans)
Calvinism
Two sacraments accepted by protestants
holy communion (Lord's supper) and baptism.
Reason by Luther and Zwingli fought
communion/Holy Supper
Predestination
Idea of Calvin that said God determined who would be saved and damned at the beginning of time.
Anglicanism
church of England
Phillip II
AKA Most Catholic of Kings. Lost the Netherlands (United Provinces)
Politiques
Leaders who put welfare of their nation above their religious concerns. Elizabeth and Henry IV are examples of this.
Thirty Years War
-4 phases
-Begins Religious Ends Political
Defenestration of Prague
event that begins the Thirty Years' War
Holy Roman Empire
-Fighter in the TYW that is involved in all the phases as a major player
-France wanted to limit this nation's power in Europe
cuius regio eius religio
'his reign his religion,' phrase that sums up the Peace of Augsburg
James I and IV
King of England and Scotland- Puts out an new Bible translation in England.
Mary I
British ruler who tries to return England to Catholicism, close ties with Spain.