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49 terms

unit 7 agricultural and rural land use vocabulary

my five terms!
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slash-and-burn agriculture
anoher name for shifting cultivation so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
swidden
patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
pastoral nomadism
form of subsistence agriculture based on herding as land used for grazing
transhumance
the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
pasture
grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
sustainable yield
The continuing yield of a biological resource, such as timber from a forest, by controlled periodic harvesting.
clustered rural settlements
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
dispersed rural settlements
rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
prime agricultural land
the most productive farmland.
agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
crop
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
carl sauer
Cultural Geographer who identified 11 areas where cultural innovations occurred (lands of plenty)
vegetative planting
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
seed agriculture
Starting a plant from annual application of seeds
milkshed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food. ex. oats, wheat, rye, or barley
double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
cash cropping/ export crops
Crop grown solely for sale rather than for the farmer's own use, for example, coffee, cotton, or sugar beet. Many developing world countries grow cash crops to meet their debt repayments rather than grow food for their own people.
ester bosserup
Female theorist who opposed Malthus' theory. She believed that agricultural methods depend on the size of the population. In times of pressure people will find out ways to increase the productivity of food by increasing workforce, machinery, fertilizers, etc.
horticulture
intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning
plantation
A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop.
truck farming/ market gardening
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
von thunen's model
Model which shows the location of agriculture in regard to a comercial economy that is similar to the concentric model
1st agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.
2nd agricultural revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.
3rd agricultural revolution
Currently in progress, its principal orientation is on the development of genetically modified organisms. Also known as the green revolution
animal domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
animal domestication
The taming of animals through generations of breeding to live in close association with humans as a pet or work animal. Allowed for dairy farming, sheep herding, etc.
luxury crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
dairying
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
mediterranean agriculture
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, olives, and other fruits and vegetables.
organic agriculture
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
biotechnology
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
green revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
intertillage
Tillage or cultivation between plants (as corn and potatoes), in contrast to tillage of the entire surface when no growing crop is on it.
desertification
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
genetic modification
changing an organism by manipulating its genetic material
grain
dry seedlike fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn
winter wheat
Wheat that is planted in autumn to develop a strong root system before growth stops in the winter.. This type of wheat is grown in Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma
spring wheat
Wheat that is planted in the spring and harvested in the summer. Grown in the belt of the Dakotas, Montana, and southern Saskatchewan in Canada.
ranching
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area, agriculture is adapted to arid and semiarid land
range wars
fights caused by some farmers in the Great Plains wanting to build fences and other farmers not wanting to, so they cut each other's barbed-wire fences and shot each other