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my five terms!

slash-and-burn agriculture

anoher name for shifting cultivation so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris


patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning

pastoral nomadism

form of subsistence agriculture based on herding as land used for grazing


the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures


grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.

sustainable yield

The continuing yield of a biological resource, such as timber from a forest, by controlled periodic harvesting.

clustered rural settlements

A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement

dispersed rural settlements

rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.

enclosure movement

The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.

subsistence agriculture

Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family

commercial agriculture

Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.

prime agricultural land

the most productive farmland.


Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.

shifting cultivation

A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.


The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.


Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.

carl sauer

Cultural Geographer who identified 11 areas where cultural innovations occurred (lands of plenty)

vegetative planting

reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants

seed agriculture

Starting a plant from annual application of seeds


The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.

cereal grain

A grass yielding grain for food. ex. oats, wheat, rye, or barley

double cropping

Harvesting twice a year from the same field.

intensive subsistence agriculture

A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.

crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.

cash cropping/ export crops

Crop grown solely for sale rather than for the farmer's own use, for example, coffee, cotton, or sugar beet. Many developing world countries grow cash crops to meet their debt repayments rather than grow food for their own people.

ester bosserup

Female theorist who opposed Malthus' theory. She believed that agricultural methods depend on the size of the population. In times of pressure people will find out ways to increase the productivity of food by increasing workforce, machinery, fertilizers, etc.


intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning


A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop.

truck farming/ market gardening

Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.

von thunen's model

Model which shows the location of agriculture in regard to a comercial economy that is similar to the concentric model

1st agricultural revolution

Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.

2nd agricultural revolution

Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.

3rd agricultural revolution

Currently in progress, its principal orientation is on the development of genetically modified organisms. Also known as the green revolution

animal domestication

genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control

animal domestication

The taming of animals through generations of breeding to live in close association with humans as a pet or work animal. Allowed for dairy farming, sheep herding, etc.

luxury crops

Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco


An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.

mediterranean agriculture

An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, olives, and other fruits and vegetables.

organic agriculture

Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.


A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.

green revolution

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.


Tillage or cultivation between plants (as corn and potatoes), in contrast to tillage of the entire surface when no growing crop is on it.


Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.

genetic modification

changing an organism by manipulating its genetic material


dry seedlike fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn

winter wheat

Wheat that is planted in autumn to develop a strong root system before growth stops in the winter.. This type of wheat is grown in Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma

spring wheat

Wheat that is planted in the spring and harvested in the summer. Grown in the belt of the Dakotas, Montana, and southern Saskatchewan in Canada.


A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area, agriculture is adapted to arid and semiarid land

range wars

fights caused by some farmers in the Great Plains wanting to build fences and other farmers not wanting to, so they cut each other's barbed-wire fences and shot each other

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